Friday, March 13, 2009

Scammers target stimulus payouts

IDENTITY thieves want to steal your life savings, with their latest scam targeting people expecting handouts as part of the Federal Government's stimulus package.

The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) is warning of an email scam asking people for personal details, aimed at stealing cash handouts being rolled out in March and April.

The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and Centrelink are preparing to make one-off bonus payments to taxpayers over the coming months as part of the $42bn package announced on February 3.

The latest scam, which emerged days after the Government announced the package, sends bogus emails to your inbox asking for personal information, ACCC deputy chairman Peter Kell says.

"Overall we're seeing a dramatic increase in scam activity,'' Mr Kell said.

"It is in part due to the general growth of online commerce and communication, but it also seems to be related to the current financial downturn which is creating new opportunities for scammers.''

According to the Australian government's Scamwatch website, the emails are disguised as official communication from the ATO or Centrelink.
Related Coverage

* Love that can break the bankCourier Mail, 9 Mar 2009
* Watch out for money scammersHerald Sun, 28 Feb 2009
* Another bushfire scam, 12 Feb 2009
* Puppy love the latest web, 11 Feb 2009
* Millions flow in for bushfire victimsHerald Sun, 9 Feb 2009

They ask people to complete and submit an application to receive the bonus payments.

"They do seem to be hitting a wide range of families,'' Mr Kell says.

Leanne Vale, senior manager of financial crimes with the Association of Building Societies and Credit Unions (ABACUS), says identity thieves can empty your bank accounts with your personal information.

"They will take your life savings, what ever they can get from you,'' Ms Vale says.

"They'll use whatever means they can to get what they want.''

Ms Vale said the scammers rolled out bogus emails in the wake of topical and emotive events such as the Victorian bushfires.

Queensland police received reports of people trying to sell raffle tickets and asking for donations on the Gold and Sunshine coasts.

"Within days of the (stimulus) package being announced, scammers had a phising email designed to get your personal information,'' she says.

"Unfortunately I suspect many people responded to it.''

Mr Kell says the main barrier to compiling information on identity and electronic theft is the embarrassment of the victims.

He says complaints compiled by the ACCC for internet and identity theft scams each year amount to tens of millions, while the Australian Bureau of Statistics puts the figure at $1bn.

While online scams are as old as the internet, the global financial crisis has see people lose confidence in current investment markets, making them more likely to turn to alternate means of investment.

"We see additional offers of easy ways to make money emerging on the web,'' he says.

"An example is the significant spike in what looked like free holidays during 2008 and this summer... but they turned out to be nonexistent in some cases or attempts to sell time share in some cases.''

"Scams can be very sophisticated and clever these days and you shouldn't be embarrassed about coming forward and reporting it.'' suggests you never give personal, credit card or bank details over the phone, in response to unsolicited emails, or enter it on any website without making sure the person, organisation or website you are dealing with is genuine.

Friday, May 2, 2008

For other places with this name, see Northumberland (disambiguation)
Alan Beith (LD) Ronnie Campbell (L) Denis Murphy (L) Northumberland is a county in the North East of England. The non-metropolitan county of Northumberland borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham to the south and Tyne and Wear to the south east, as well as having a border with the Scottish Borders council area to the north, and nearly eighty miles of North Sea coastline. Since 1974 the county council has been located in Morpeth, situated in the east of the county at 55°10′07″N, 1°41′15″W; however, both Morpeth and Alnwick claim the title county town.
As the kingdom of Northumbria under King Edwin, the region's historical boundaries stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. The historic boundaries of the county cover a different area, including Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the traditional county town, as well as Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside, areas administered by Tyne and Wear since 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. The historic boundaries of the county are sometimes taken to exclude Islandshire, Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire (collectively North Durham), exclaves of County Durham which were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844.
Being on the border of Scotland and England, Northumberland has been the site of many battles. The county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, a favourite with landscape painters, and now largely protected as a National Park.
Northumberland's county flower is the Bloody Cranesbill (Geranium sanguineum) and her affiliated Royal Navy ship is her namesake, HMS Northumberland.

Blyth Valley
Castle Morpeth
Berwick-upon-Tweed History
The physical geography of Northumberland is diverse. It is low and flat near the North Sea coast and increasingly mountainous toward the northwest. The Cheviot Hills, in the northwest of the county, consist mainly of resistant Devonian granite and andesite lava. A second area of igneous rock underlies Whin Sill (on which Hadrian's Wall runs), an intrusion of carboniferous Dolerite. Both ridges support a rather bare moorland landscape. Either side of Whin Sill the county lies on carboniferous limestone, giving some areas of karst landscape.
Approximately a quarter of the county is protected as the Northumberland National Park, an area of outstanding landscape that has largely been protected from development and agriculture. The park stretches south from the Scottish border and includes Hadrian's Wall. Most of the park is over 800 feet (240 metres) above sea level. The Northumberland Coast is also a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Physical geography
There are a variety of notable habitats and species in Northumberland including: Chillingham Cattle herd; Holy Island; Farne Islands; and Staple Island.

Northumberland Ecology
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Northumberland at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Northumberland has a relatively weak economy amongst the counties and other local government areas of the United Kingdom..

See also: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Northumberland
Like most English shire counties Northumberland has a two-tier system of local government. It has a county council based in Morpeth and also has six districts, each with their own district council.
These districts are, Blyth Valley, Wansbeck, Castle Morpeth, Tynedale, Alnwick and Berwick-upon-Tweed. The county and district councils are responsible for different aspects of local government.
The Department for Communities and Local Government have passed plans to reorganise Northumberland's administrative structure. Two proposals are being looked at - one to abolish all of the districts to create a Northumberland unitary authority; and one to create two separate unitary authorities, South East Northumberland (the area now covered by Blyth Valley and Wansbeck), and Rural Northumberland (the area now covered by the other four districts). The changes are planned to be implemented no later than 1 April 2009.
Northumberland is represented in the House of Commons by four Members of Parliament, of whom one is a Conservative, one is a Liberal Democrat and two are Labour.

Northumberland has traditions not found elsewhere in England, reflecting a mix of indigenous, Anglian, Celtic and Norse influences. These include the rapper sword dance, the Clog dance and the Northumbrian smallpipe. Northumberland also has its own kilt and tartan, sometimes referred to in Scotland as the Shepherd's Tartan. Traditional Northumberland music sounds similar to Scottish music, reflecting the strong historical links between Northumbria and Scotland.
In general, the culture of Northumberland, as with the north east of England, has much more it would seem in common with Scottish Lowland culture than with the rest of England, the two perhaps having more in common with each other in some respects, than with other parts of their respective countries. The links between Northumberland and Scotland are audible in the dialects of both, which include many Old English words, such as bairn for child. For further information, see Scots language and Geordie. Attempts to raise the level of awareness of Northumberland culture have also started, with the formation of a Northumbrian Language Society to preserve the unique dialects (Pitmatic and Northumbrian) of this region, as well as to promote home-grown talent.
Northumberland has its own flag, based on the design first used on the tomb of St Oswald in the 7th century. The current version was granted to the county council in 1951, and adopted as the flag of Northumberland county in 1995.[1]

Having no large population centres, the county's mainstream media outlets are served from nearby Tyne and Wear, including radio stations and television channels (such as BBC Look North, BBC Radio Newcastle, Tyne Tees Television and Metro Radio), along with the majority of daily newspapers covering the area (The Journal, Evening Chronicle). Newspapers focusing exclusively on Northumberland or its districts include the Northumberland Gazette, Morpeth Herald, Berwick Advertiser, Hexham Courant and the News Post Leader.
Lionheart FM, a community radio station based in Alnwick, has recently been awarded a five-year community broadcasting license by OFCOM. Radio Borders covers Berwick and the rural north of the county.


Ashington was the birth place of the three famous footballers Bobby and Jack Charlton in 1937 and 1935 respectively; and Jackie Milburn previously in 1924. The basketballer Alan Hoyle was born here in 1983 whilst in 1978 Steve Harmison, an international cricketer was born here.
Mickley was the birth place of Thomas Bewick, an artist, wood engraver and naturalist in 1753 and Bob Stokoe, a footballer, F.A. Cup winning manager in 1930
Other notable births include:

Thomas Addison, a physician born at Longbenton in 1793
George Airy, an astronomer and geophysicist born at Alnwick in 1802
Lancelot 'Capability' Brown, landscape and garden designer born at Kirkharle in 1715
Josephine Butler, social reformer born at Milfield in 1828
Basil Bunting, a poet born at Scotswood-on-Tyne in 1900
Grace Darling, a heroine born at Bamburgh in 1815
Pete Doherty, a musician born at Hexham in 1979
Bryan Donkin, an engineer and industrialist born at Sandhoe in 1768
Robson Green, an actor and singer born at Hexham in 1964
Daniel Gooch, an engineer and politician born at Bedlington in 1816
Sir Alistair Graham (1942 -), noted public figure
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, British Prime Minister born at the family seat of Howick Hall in 1764
John Rushworth (1793-1860), an historian born at Acklington Park, Warkworth
George Stephenson, an engineer born at Wylam in 1781
Hugh Trevor-Roper, an historian born at Glanton in 1914
William Turner, ornithologist and botanist born at Morpeth in 1508
C. V. Wedgwood, an historian born in 1910 Northumberland Famous people born in Northumbria

Thomas Burt, one of the first working-class Members of Parliament and was secretary of the Northumberland Miners' Association in 1863
Ross Noble, a stand-up comedian raising in Cramlington in the 1970s and 1980s
Henry "Harry Hotspur" Percy (1365-1403), borders warlord and rebel
Billy Pigg, a 20th century musician who was vice-President of the Northumbrian Pipers Society
Algernon Swinburne, a poet raised at Capheaton Hall
Kathryn Tickell, a modern day player of the Northumbrian smallpipes
Mark Knopfler, the lead singer of Dire Straits released a song called "Fare Thee Well Northumberland" on his 2002 album, The Ragpicker's Dream. Settlements

Duke of Northumberland
List of places of interest and tourist attractions in Northumberland
List of Parliamentary constituencies in Northumberland
Anglo-Scottish border

Thursday, May 1, 2008

This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Wales
    1997, 2001, 2005, 2009/10
    1999, 2004, 2009
National Assembly for Wales constituencies and electoral regions were first used for the Welsh Assembly election, 1999. New boundaries came into use for the Welsh Assembly election, 2007. The total numbers of constituencies and regions (40 constituencies and five regions) remained the same.
The constituencies of the National Assembly for Wales (or Welsh Assembly) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) were created with the boundaries of the Welsh constituencies of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster), as they were in 1999. The new boundaries are those which will be used, also, for the next United Kingdom general election. Therefore, since the 2007 Assembly election and until the next United Kingdom general election, the two sets of constituencies, Assembly and Westminster, have differing boundaries.
Three constituency names, Conwy, Carnarfon, and Meirionydd Nant Conwy, have become historic, and the new boundaries define three constituencies with new names, Arfon, Dwyfor Meirionnydd, and Aberconwy. Generally, the new boundaries define each constituency as a division of a single preserved county, take account of changes to local government ward boundaries, and create constituencies closer to equal in terms of the sizes of their electorates. Merthyr Tydfil and Rhymney, however, continues to straddle the boundary between Mid Glamorgan and Gwent.
Unlike Westminster constituencies, Assembly constituencies are grouped into electoral regions, and an additional member system is used to elect four additional Assembly Members (AMs) (Welsh: Aelodau y Cynulliad) from each region, in addition, that is, to AMs elected by the constituencies. At each general election of the Assembly, each elector has two votes, one constituency vote and one regional party-list vote. Each constituency elects one AM by the first past the post (single-member district plurality, SMDP) system, and the additional Assembly seats are filled from regional closed party lists, under the d'Hondt method, with constituency results being taken into account, to produce a degree of proportional representation for each region. Altogether, 60 AMs are elected from the 40 constituencies and five electoral regions, creating an Assembly of 40 constituency AMs and 20 additional AMs. Every constituent is represented by one constituency AM and four regional AMs.

Contemporary Welsh Law
English Law
Courts of England and Wales
National Assembly for Wales

  • Measures
    Statutory Instruments
    Presiding Officer

    • Dafydd Elis-Thomas
      Members (AMs): 2007
      Constituencies and electoral regions
      Elections: 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011
      Welsh Assembly Government

      • First Minister: Rhodri Morgan
        Deputy First Minister: Ieuan Wyn Jones
        Welsh Ministers
        Counsel General: Carwyn Jones
        Wales in the UK Parliament:

        • Constituencies
          Elections: 1979, 1983, 1987, 1992,
          Wales in the UK Government:

          • Wales Office
            Secretary of State: Peter Hain
            European Parliament

            • European Parliament constituency
              Elections: 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994,
              Administrative divisions of Wales
              Political parties From 2007

              Welsh Assembly constituencies Electoral regions


Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Ecuadorian-United States relations
The United States and Ecuador have maintained close ties based on mutual interests in maintaining democratic institutions; combating illegal drugs trade; building trade, investment, and financial ties; cooperating in fostering Ecuador's economic development; and participating in inter-American organizations. Ties are further strengthened by the presence of an estimated 150,000-200,000 Ecuadorians living in the United States and by 24,000 U.S. citizens visiting Ecuador annually, and by approximately 15,000 U.S. citizens residing in Ecuador. The United States assists Ecuador's economic development directly through the Agency for International Development (USAID) program in Ecuador and through multilateral organizations such as the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank. In addition, the U.S. Peace Corps operates a sizable program in Ecuador. More than 100 U.S. companies are doing business in Ecuador.
Both nations are signatories of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (the Rio Treaty) of 1947, the Western Hemisphere's regional mutual security treaty. Ecuador shares U.S. concern over increasing narcotrafficking and international terrorism and has energetically condemned terrorist actions, whether directed against government officials or private citizens. The government has maintained Ecuador virtually free of coca production since the mid-1980s and is working to combat money laundering and the transshipment of drugs and chemicals essential to the processing of cocaine.
Ecuador and the U.S. agreed in 1999 to a 10-year arrangement whereby U.S. military surveillance aircraft could use the airbase at Manta, Ecuador, as a Forward Operating Location to detect drug trafficking flights through the region. In fisheries issues, the United States claims jurisdiction for the management of coastal fisheries up to 200 mile (370 km) from its coast, but excludes highly migratory species; Ecuador, on the other hand, claims a 200 mile (370 km) territorial sea, and imposes license fees and fines on foreign fishing vessels in the area, making no exceptions for catches of migratory species. In the early 1970s, Ecuador seized about 100 foreign-flag vessels (many of them U.S.) and collected fees and fines of more than $6 million. After a drop-off in such seizures for some years, several U.S. tuna boats were again detained and seized in 1980 and 1981.
The U.S. Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act then triggered an automatic prohibition of U.S. imports of tuna products from Ecuador. The prohibition was lifted in 1983, and although fundamental differences between U.S. and Ecuadorian legislation still exist, there is no current conflict. During the period that has elapsed since seizures which triggered the tuna import ban, successive Ecuadorian governments have declared their willingness to explore possible solutions to this problem with mutual respect for longstanding positions and principles of both sides.

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

The Glass Flowers, formally The Ware Collection of Blaschka Glass Models of Plants, is a famous collection of highly-realistic glass botanical models at the Harvard Museum of Natural History at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
They were made by Leopold and Rudolf Blaschka from 1887 through 1936 at their studio in Hosterwitz, Germany, near Dresden. They were commissioned by Professor George Lincoln Goodale, founder of Harvard's Botanical Museum, for the purpose of teaching botany, and financed by Goodale's former student, Mary Lee Ware and her mother, Elizabeth Ware. Over 3000 models, of 847 different plant species, were made.

Glass Flowers The models
The flowers have suffered deterioration and are undergoing restoration. In a 1999 article about the collection in the journal ResearchPennState curatorial associate Susan Rossi-Wilcox is quoted as saying "It took a long time for the faculty here to go from thinking about the Glass Flowers as a teaching collection to thinking about them as art objects." Rossi-Wilcox went on "See the white powdery stuff on the leaves? This is glass corrosion. The majority of these models are affected. That's the great irony. The models showing plant diseases are also showing glass diseases."

The Glass Flowers were and are one of the most famous attractions of the Boston area. More than 120,000 visitors view the collection annually. In 1936, when Harvard invited the public to tour the campus in honor of its tercentenary, a New York Times reporter taking the tour commented "Tercentenary or no, the chief focus of interest remains the famous glass flowers, the first of which was put on exhibition in 1893, and which with additions at interval since, have never failed to draw exclamations of wonder or disbelief from visitors.".

Saturday, April 26, 2008

The California Eagle, was one of the oldest African American newspapers in Los Angeles, California, and the West, traces its origins to 1879.

California Eagle Later history

Friday, April 25, 2008

Between 1995 and 2005, 16,742 Americans died from hernias.

Hernias can be classified according to their anatomical location:
Examples include:
Each of the above hernias may be characterised by several aspects:
If irreducible, hernias can develop several complications (hence, they can be complicated or uncomplicated):

abdominal hernias
diaphragmatic hernias and hiatal hernias (for example, paraesophageal hernia of the stomach)
pelvic hernias, for example, obturator hernia
hernias of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs
intracranial hernias
congenital or acquired: congenital hernias occur prenatally or in the first year(s) of life, and are caused by a congenital defect, whereas acquired hernias develop later on in life. However, this may be on the basis of a locus minoris resistentiae (Lat. place of least resistance) that is congenital, but only becomes symptomatic later on in life, when degeneration and increased stress (for example, increased abdominal pressure from coughing in COPD) provoke the hernia.
complete or incomplete: for example, the stomach may partially herniate into the chest, or completely.
internal or external: external ones herniate to the outside world, whereas internal hernias protrude from their normal compartment to another (for example, mesenteric hernias).
intraparietal hernia: hernia that does not reach all the way to the subcutis, but only to the musculoaponeurotic layer. An example is a Spigelian hernia. Intraparietal hernias may produces less obvious bulging, and may be less easily detected on clinical examination.
bilateral: in this case, simultaneous repair may be considered, sometimes even with a giant prosthetic reinforcement.
irreducible (also known as incarcerated): the hernial contents cannot be returned to their normal site with simple manipulation
strangulation: pressure on the hernial contents may compromise blood supply (especially veins, with their low pressure, are sensitive, and venous congestion often results) and cause ischemia, and later necrosis and gangrene, which may become fatal.
obstruction: for example, when a part of the bowel herniates, bowel contents can no longer pass the obstruction. This results in cramps, and later on vomiting, ileus, absence of flatus and absence of defecation. These signs mandate urgent surgery.
another complication arises when the herniated organ itself, or surrounding organs start dysfunctioning (for example, sliding hernia of the stomach causing heartburn, lumbar disc hernia causing sciatic nerve pain, etc.) Characteristics
It is generally advisable to repair hernias in a timely fashion, in order to prevent complications such as organ dysfunction, gangrene, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Most abdominal hernias can be surgically repaired, and recovery rarely requires long-term changes in lifestyle. Uncomplicated hernias are principally repaired by pushing back, or "reducing", the herniated tissue, and then mending the weakness in muscle tissue (an operation called herniorrhaphy). If complications have occurred, the surgeon will check the viability of the herniated organ, and resect it if necessary. Modern muscle reinforcement techniques involve synthetic materials (a mesh prosthesis) that avoid over-stretching of already weakened tissue (as in older, but still useful methods). The mesh is placed over the defect, and sometimes staples are used to keep the mesh in place. Increasingly, some repairs are performed through laparoscopes.
Many patients are managed through surgical daycare centers, and are able to return to work within a week or two, while heavy activities are prohibited for a longer period. Surgical complications have been estimated to be up to 10%, but most of them can be easily addressed. They include surgical site infections, nerve and blood vessel injuries, injury to nearby organs, and hernia recurrence.
Generally, the use of external devices to maintain reduction of the hernia without repairing the underlying defect (such as hernia trusses, trunks, belts, etc.), is not advised. Exceptions are uncomplicated incisional hernias that arise shortly after the operation (should only be operated after a few months), or inoperable patients.
It is essential that the hernia not be further irritated by carrying out strenuous labour.

A sportman's hernia is a syndrome characterized by chronic groin pain in athletes and a dilated superficial ring of the inguinal canal, although a true hernia is not present.

Hernia Individual hernias
Main article: inguinal hernia.
By far the most common hernias (up to 75% of all abdominal hernias) are the so-called inguinal hernias. For a thorough understanding of inguinal hernias, much insight is needed in the anatomy of the inguinal canal. Inguinal hernias are further divided into the more common indirect inguinal hernia (2/3, depicted here), in which the inguinal canal is entered via a congenital weakness at its entrance (the internal inguinal ring), and the direct inguinal hernia type (1/3), where the hernia contents push through a weak spot in the back wall of the inguinal canal. Inguinal hernias are more common in men than women while femoral hernias are more common in women.

Inguinal hernia
Main article: femoral hernia.
Femoral hernias occur just below the inguinal ligament, when abdominal contents pass into the weak area at the posterior wall of the femoral canal. They can be hard to distinguish from the inguinal type (especially when ascending cephalad): however, they generally appear more rounded, and, in contrast to inguinal hernias, there is a strong female preponderance in femoral hernias. The incidence of strangulation in femoral hernias is high. Repair techniques are similar for femoral and inguinal hernia.

Hernia Femoral hernia
Main article: umbilical hernia.
Umbilical hernias are especially common in infants of African descent, and occur more in boys. They involve protrusion of intraabdominal contents through a weakness at the site of passage of the umbilical cord through the abdominal wall. These hernias often resolve spontaneously. Umbilical hernias in adults are largely acquired, and are more frequent in obese or pregnant women. Abnormal decussation of fibers at the linea alba may contribute.

Umbilical hernia
Main article: incisional hernia.
An incisional hernia occurs when the defect is the result of an incompletely healed surgical wound. When these occur in median laparotomy incisions in the linea alba, they are termed ventral hernias. These can be the most frustrating and difficult to treat, as the repair utilizes already attenuated tissue.

Incisional hernia
Main article: diaphragmatic hernia
Higher in the abdomen, an (internal) "diaphragmatic hernia" results when part of the stomach or intestine protrudes into the chest cavity through a defect in the diaphragm.
A hiatus hernia is a particular variant of this type, in which the normal passageway through which the esophagus meets the stomach (esophageal hiatus) serves as a functional "defect", allowing part of the stomach to (periodically) "herniate" into the chest. Hiatus hernias may be either "sliding," in which the gastroesophageal junction itself slides through the defect into the chest, or non-sliding (also known as para-esophageal), in which case the junction remains fixed while another portion of the stomach moves up through the defect. Non-sliding or para-esophageal hernias can be dangerous as they may allow the stomach to rotate and obstruct. Repair is usually advised.
A congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a distinct problem, occurring in up to 1 in 2000 births, and requiring pediatric surgery. Intestinal organs may herniate through several parts of the diaphragm, posterolateral (in Bochdalek's triangle, resulting in Bochdalek's hernia), or anteromedial-retrosternal (in the cleft of Larrey/Morgagni's foramen, resulting in Morgagni-Larrey hernia, or Morgagni's hernia).

Diaphragmatic hernia
Since many organs or parts of organs can herniate through many orifices, it is very difficult to give an exhaustive list of hernias, with all synonyms and eponyms. The above article deals mostly with "visceral hernias", where the herniating tissue arises within the abdominal cavity. Other hernia types and unusual types of visceral hernias are listed below, in alphabetical order:

Brain hernia: herniation of part of the brain because of excessive intracranial pressure. This may be a life-threatening condition, especially if the brain stem (responsible for some important vital signs) is involved.
Cooper's hernia: A femoral hernia with two sacs, the first being in the femoral canal, and the second passing through a defect in the superficial fascia and appearing immediately beneath the skin.
epigastric hernia: hernia through the linea alba above the umbilicus.
Littre's hernia: hernia involving a Meckel's diverticulum. It is named after French anatomist Alexis Littre (1658-1726).
lumbar hernia: hernia in the lumbar region (not to be confused with a lumbar disc hernia), contains following entities:

  • Petit's hernia - hernia through Petit's triangle (inferior lumbar triangle). It is named after French surgeon Jean Louis Petit (1674-1750).
    Grynfeltt's hernia - hernia through Grynfeltt-Lesshaft triangle (superior lumbar triangle). It is named after physician Joseph Grynfeltt (1840-1913).
    obturator hernia: hernia through obturator canal
    pantaloon hernia: a combined direct and indirect hernia, when the hernial sac protrudes on either side of the inferior epigastric vessels
    perineal hernia: A perineal hernia protrudes through the muscles and fascia of the perineal floor. It may be primary but usually, is acquired following perineal prostatectomy, abdominoperineal resection of the rectum, or pelvic exenteration.
    properitoneal hernia: rare hernia located directly above the peritoneum, for example, when part of an inguinal hernia projects from the deep inguinal ring to the preperitoneal space.
    Richter's hernia: strangulated hernia involving only one sidewall of the bowel, which can result in bowel perforation through ischaemia without causing bowel obstruction or any of its warning signs. It is named after German surgeon August Gottlieb Richter (1742-1812).
    sliding hernia: occurs when an organ drags along part of the peritoneum, or, in other words, the organ is part of the hernia sac. The colon and the urinary bladder are often involved. The term also frequently refers to sliding hernias of the stomach.
    sciatic hernia: this hernia in the greater sciatic foramen most commonly presents as an uncomfortable mass in the gluteal area. Bowel obstruction may also occur. This type of hernia is only a rare cause of sciatic neuralgia.
    Spigelian hernia, also known as spontaneous lateral ventral hernia
    Velpeau hernia: a hernia in the groin in front of the femoral blood vessels
    spinal disc herniation, or "herniated nucleus pulposus": a condition where the central weak part of the intervertebral disc (nucleus pulposus, which helps absorb shocks to our spine), herniates through the fibrous band (annulus fibrosus) by which it is normally bound. This usually occurs low in the back at the lumbar or lumbo-sacral level and can cause back pain which usually radiates well into the thigh or leg. When the sciatic nerve is involved, the symptom complex is called sciatica. Herniation can occur in the cervical vertebrae too. A nucleoplasty is an operation to repair the herniation. Complications

    "Weird Al" Yankovic recorded a song entitled "Living with a Hernia", on his Polka Party! album. The song is a parody of James Brown's "Living in America", and describes the discomfort associated with suffering a hernia, as well as listing common types of hernias.
    Comedian Bill Engvall has a routine "My hernia"..
    The Arrogant Worms recorded a song entitled "Hernia Belt", on their Beige album. The song praises the singer's hernia belt and later hernia repair surgery.
    In the Simpsons episode Raging Abe Simpson and His Grumbling Grandson in "The Curse of the Flying Hellfish", a hernia killed Oxford as he was carrying a safe full of paintings out of a castle.