Saturday, March 29, 2008

Alfred Crosby
Alfred W. Crosby is a historian, professor and author of such books as The Colombian Exchange (1972) and Ecological Imperialism (1986). In these works, he provides biological and geographical explanations for why Europeans were able to succeed with relative ease in what he refers to as the Neo-Europes of Australasia, North America, and southern South America.
Recognizing the majority of modern day wealth is located in Europe and the Neo-Europes, Crosby set out to investigate what historical causes are behind the disparity. According to Hal Rothman, a Professor of History at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas, Crosby "added biology to the process of human exploration, coming up with explanations for events as diverse as Cortez's conquest of Mexico and the fall of the Inca empire that made vital use of the physical essence of humanity.".
Jared Diamond, author of Guns, Germs, and Steel, has reached similar conclusions about the role of biology and ecology in human history.

Friday, March 28, 2008

Canals of Ireland
This article covers the island of Ireland, that is, covering both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

Boyne Navigation
Broharris Canal
Coalisland Canal (Tyrone Navigation)
Dukart's Canal
Grand Canal
Lacy's Canal
Lagan Canal
Newry Canal
Royal Canal
Shannon-Erne Waterway
Strabane Canal
Ulster Canal

Thursday, March 27, 2008

Alan Emtage
Alan Emtage (born November 27, 1964) conceived of and implemented the first version of Archie, a pre-Web internet search engine for locating material in public FTP archives.
A native of Barbados, and the son of Sir Stephen and Lady Emtage, he attended high school at Harrison College from 1975 to 1983 (and in 1981 becoming the proud owner of a Sinclair ZX81 with 1K of memory), where he graduated at the top of his class, winning the prestigious Barbados Scholarship.
In 1983 he entered McGill University in Montréal, Canada studying for an honors Bachelor's degree in computer science which was followed by a Master's degree in 1987 from which he graduated in 1991. Emtage was part of the team that brought the first Internet link to eastern Canada (and only the second link in the country) in 1986. In 1989 while a student and working as a systems administrator for the School of Computer Science, Emtage conceived of and implemented the original version of the Archie search engine, the world's first Internet search engine and the start of a line which leads directly to today's Altavista, Yahoo!, Inktomi and Google.
In 1992, Emtage along with Peter J. Deutsch formed Bunyip Information Systems the world's first company expressly founded for and dedicated to providing Internet information services with a licensed commercial version of the Archie search engine used by millions of people worldwide.
Emtage was a founding member of the Internet Society and went on to create and chair several important Working Groups at the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), the standard-setting body for the Internet. Working with other pioneers such as Tim Berners-Lee, Marc Andreessen, Mark McCahill (creator of Gopher) and Jon Postel, Emtage co-chaired the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) Working Group which created and codified the standard for Uniform Resource Locators (URLs).
Emtage has spoken and lectured around the world on Internet Information Systems.
Emtage is currently Chief Technical Officer at Mediapolis, Inc., a web engineering company in New York City.

Alan Emtage Works

"The Search: How Google and Its Rivals Rewrote the Rules of Business and Transformed Our Culture" John Battelle (Portfolio Hardcover, 2005) ISBN 1-59184-088-0
How the Web was Born: The Story of the World Wide Web Robert Cailliau, James Gillies, R. Cailliau (Oxford University Press, 2000) ISBN 0-19-286207-3
"The Information Revolution: The Not-for-Dummies Guide to the History, Technology, And Use of the World Wide Web" J. R. Okin (Ironbound Press, 2005) ISBN 0-9763857-3-2
"Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science" Marcel Dekker (CRC Press, 2002) ISBN 0-8247-2072-5
"Encyclopedia of Microcomputers" Allen Kent, James G Williams, Kent Kent (Marcel Dekke, 2002) ISBN 0-8247-2727-4

Wednesday, March 26, 2008

Bond market Fixed income Corporate bond Government bond Municipal bond Bond valuation High-yield debt Stock market Stock Preferred stock Common stock Stock exchange Foreign exchange market Retail forex Derivative market Credit derivative Hybrid security Options Futures Forwards Swaps Other Markets Commodity market OTC market Real estate market Spot marketTranche Finance series Financial market Financial market participants Corporate finance Personal finance Public finance Banks and Banking Financial regulation In structured finance, the word tranche (misspelled as traunch or traunche) refers to one of several related securitized bonds offered as part of the same deal. The word tranche is French for slice, section, series, or portion; in the financial sense of the word, each bond is a slice of the deal's risk. The legal documents (see indenture) usually refer to the tranches as "classes" of notes identified by letter (e.g. the Class A, Class B, Class C securities).

How tranching works

A bank transfers risk in its loan portfolio by entering into a default swap with a "ring-fenced" SPV ("Special Purpose Vehicle")
The SPV buys gilts (UK government bonds)
The SPV sells 4 tranches of credit linked notes with a waterfall structure whereby:

  • Tranche A absorbs the first 25% of losses on the portfolio
    Tranche B absorbs the next 25% of losses
    Tranche C the next 25%
    Tranche D the final 25%
    Tranches B, C and D are sold to outside investors
    Tranche A is bought by bank itself Benefits
    Tranching poses the following risks:

    Tranching can add complexity to deals. "Beyond the challenges posed by estimation of the asset pool's loss distribution, tranching requires detailed, deal-specific documentation to ensure that the desired characteristics, such as the seniority ordering the various tranches, will be delivered under all plausible scenarios. In addition, complexity may be further increased by the need to account for the involvement of asset managers and other third parties, whose own incentives to act in the interest of some investor classes at the expense of other may need to be balanced.
    With increased complexity, less sophisticated investors have a harder time understanding them and thus are less able to make informed investment decisions. One must be very careful investing in structured products. As shown above, tranches from the same offering have different risk, reward, and/or maturity characteristics.
    Tranching has largely led to the understatement of the risks embedded in high-yield debt and asset-backed securities backing the structured products. These risks have surfaced recently in the light of the subprime meltdown. See also
    "Tranche" is also the name of the file sharing network for scientific data ( The name is used to refer to how Tranche works: many research groups share a portion or slice of the responsibility for sharing public access scientific data sets.

Tuesday, March 25, 2008

Magic (illusion)
Magic is a performing art that entertains an audience by creating illusions of impossible feats, using purely natural means. These feats are called magic tricks, effects or illusions.
An artist who performs magic is called a magician. Magicians (or magi) are also referred to by names reflecting the type of magical effects they typically perform, such as prestidigitators, conjurors, illusionists, mentalists, ventriloquists, and escape artists, etc.

There is much discussion among magicians as to how a given effect is to be categorized, and disagreement as to what categories actually exist -- for instance, some magicians consider "penetrations" to be a separate category, while others consider penetrations a form of restoration or teleportation. It is generally agreed that there are very few different types of effect. While many authors such as Fitzkee, Tarbell, S.H. Sharpe and others have disagreed, it has often been said that there are only seven types of illusion (perhaps because it is considered a magic number).
Many magical routines use combinations of effects. For example, in the famous 'cups and balls' a magician may use vanishes, productions, penetrations, teleportations and transformations all as part of the one presentation.

Production The magician produces something from nothing—a rabbit from an empty hat, a fan of cards from thin air, a shower of coins from an empty bucket, or the magician themselves, appearing in a puff of smoke on an empty stage -- all of these effects are productions.
Vanishing The magician makes something disappear—a coin, a cage of doves, milk from a newspaper, an assistant from a cabinet, or even the Statue of Liberty. A vanish, being the reverse of a production, may use a similar technique, in reverse.
Transformation The magician transforms something from one state into another—a silk handkerchief changes colour, a lady turns into a tiger, an indifferent card changes to the spectator's chosen card. A transformation can be seen as a combination of a vanish and a production.
Restoration The magician destroys an object, then restores it back to its original state—a rope is cut, a newspaper is torn, a woman is sawn in half, a borrowed watch is smashed to pieces—then they are all restored to their original state.
Teleportation The magician causes something to move from one place to another—a borrowed ring is found inside a ball of wool, a canary inside a light bulb, an assistant from a cabinet to the back of the theatre. When two objects exchange places, it is called a transposition: a simultaneous, double teleportation.
Levitation The magician defies gravity, either by making something float in the air, or with the aid of another object (suspension)—a silver ball floats around a cloth, an assistant floats in mid-air, another is suspended from a broom, a scarf dances in a sealed bottle, the magician hovers a few inches off the floor. There are many popular ways to create this illusion of the magician himself being levitated, such as the Balducci levitation, the King Rising, Criss Angel's stool levitations, the Andruzzi levitations, and the eight gravity.
Penetration The magician makes a solid object pass through another—a set of steel rings link and unlink, a candle penetrates an arm, swords pass through an assistant in a basket, a saltshaker penetrates the table-top, a man walks through a mirror. Sometimes referred to as 'solid-through-solid'.
Prediction The magician predicts the choice of a spectator, or the outcome of an event under seemingly impossible circumstances—a newspaper headline is predicted, the total amount of loose change in the spectator's pocket, a picture drawn on a slate. Prediction forms the basis for most 'pick-a-card' tricks, where a random card is chosen, then revealed to be known by the performer. Categories of effects
The purpose of a magic trick is to amuse and create a feeling of wonder; the audience is generally aware that the magic is performed using trickery, and derives enjoyment from the magician's skill and cunning. Traditionally, magicians refuse to reveal the secrets to the audience. The reasons include:
Membership in professional magicians' organizations often requires a solemn commitment to the "Magician's Oath" never to reveal the secrets of magic to non-magicians.
The Magician's Oath (though it may vary, 'The Oath' takes the following, or similar form):

"As a magician I promise never to reveal the secret of any illusion to a non-magician, unless that one swears to uphold the Magician's Oath in turn. I promise never to perform any illusion for any non-magician without first practicing the effect until I can perform it well enough to maintain the illusion of magic."
Once sworn to The Oath, one is considered a magician, and is expected to live up to this promise. A magician who reveals a secret, either purposely or through insufficient practice, may typically find oneself without any magicians willing to teach one any more secrets.
However, it is considered permissible to reveal secrets to individuals who are determined to learn magic and become magicians. It is typically a sequential process of increasingly valuable and lesser known secrets. The secrets of almost all magical effects are available to the public through numerous books and magazines devoted to magic, available from the specialised magic trade. There are also web sites which offer videos, DVDs and instructional materials. In this sense, there are very few classical illusions left unrevealed, however this does not appear to have diminished the appeal of performances. In addition, magic is a living art, and new illusions are devised with surprising regularity. Sometimes a 'new' illusion will be built on an illusion that is old enough to have become unfamiliar.
Some magicians have taken the controversial position that revealing the methods used in certain works of magic can enhance the appreciation of the audience for cleverness of magic. Penn and Teller frequently perform tricks using transparent props to reveal how it is done, for example, although they almost always include additional unexplained effects at the end that are made even more astonishing by the revealing props being used.
Often what seems to be a revelation of a magical secret is merely another form of misdirection. For instance, a magician may explain to an audience member that the linking rings "have a hole in them" and hand the volunteer two unlinked rings, which the volunteer finds to have become linked as soon as he handles them. At this point the magician may shove his arm through the ring ('the hole in the ring'), proclaiming: "See? Once you know that every ring has a hole, it's easy!"
See also: Intellectual rights to magic methods

Exposure is claimed to "kill" magic as an artform and transforms it into mere intellectual puzzles and riddles. It is argued that once the secret of a trick is revealed to a person, that one can no longer fully enjoy subsequent performances of that magic, as the amazement is missing. Sometimes the secret is so simple that the audience feels let down, and feels disappointed it was taken in so easily.
Keeping the secrets preserves the professional mystery of magicians who perform for money. Secrecy
The teaching of performance magic was once a secretive art. Professional magicians were unwilling to share knowledge with anyone outside the profession to prevent the laity from learning their secrets. This made it difficult for an interested apprentice to learn magic beyond the basics. Some organizations of magicians had strict rules against members discussing magic secrets with anyone but established magicians.
From the 1584 publication of Reginald Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft until the end of the 19th century, only a few books were available for budding magicians to learn the craft. Books remain extremely useful today, and are still considered the best way for a student to learn magic. Videos and DVDs are a newer medium of tuition, which many inexperienced magicians rely on as a primary source of information; in reality, many of the methods found in this format are readily found in previously published books. However, they can serve useful as a visual demonstration.
The next step up is joining a magic club or workshop. Here magicians, both seasoned and novitiate, can work together and help one another for mutual improvement, to learn new techniques, to discuss all aspects of magic, to perform for each other — sharing advice, encouragement and criticism.
The world's largest magic organization is the International Brotherhood of Magicians. It publishes a monthly journal, The Linking Ring. The oldest organization is the Society of American Magicians, of which Houdini was a member; and in London, England, there is the Magic Circle which boasts the largest magic library in Europe. The Magic Castle in Hollywood is home to the Academy of Magical Arts.

Monday, March 24, 2008

James Island, South Carolina
James Island is a town in Charleston County, South Carolina. It is located in the central and southern parts of James Island. As defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, the town's population is included within the Charleston-North Charleston Urbanized Area and the larger Charleston-North Charleston Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Comic television sensation Stephen Colbert grew up on James Island, frequently mentioning both Charleston and South Carolina on his television program The Colbert Report.
Atlanta Falcons wide receiver, Roddy White.

Sunday, March 23, 2008

Wild Bill Hallahan
William Anthony "Wild Bill" Hallahan (August 4, 1902 - July 8, 1981) was an American lefthanded pitcher in Major League Baseball during the 1920s and 1930s. So named because of his lack of control on the mound — he twice led the National League in bases on balls — Hallahan nevertheless was one of the pitching stars of the 1931 World Series and pitched his finest in postseason competition.
He also was the starting pitcher for the NL in the first All-Star Game in 1933, losing a 4-2 decision to Lefty Gomez of the American League and surrendering a third-inning home run to Babe Ruth in the process.
Hallahan, a native of Binghamton, New York, spent most of his career in the employ of the St. Louis Cardinals. He signed with their nearby AA farm club, the Syracuse Stars of the International League, in 1924. The following season, he made his first NL appearance for the Redbirds, appearing in six games. In 1926, Hallahan pitched in 19 games for the Cardinals during the regular season, and made a first, brief World Series appearance that fall against the New York Yankees.
But Hallahan was not yet ready for an extended major league career. He spent 1927 with Syracuse, winning 19 games and leading the International League in strikeouts (195) and walks (135). The next season, he won 23 games for the Houston Buffaloes and led the Texas League in strikouts (244). Finally, in 1929, he rejoined the Cardinals.
He became a starting pitcher in 1930, winning 15 games for the pennant-winning Cardinals and leading the NL in strikeouts (177) and walks (126). In the 1930 World Series against the Philadelphia Athletics, Hallahan split two decisions but he shut out the powerful A's in Game 3 and allowed only two earned runs in 11 innings, for a sparking ERA of 1.64. Philadelphia won the Series in six games, the only World Series Hallahan's Cardinals would ever lose.
In 1931, Hallahan again led the NL in strikeouts (159) and walks (112) and won 19 games, as St. Louis again took the league championship for a rematch against the Athletics. This time, Hallahan was even more effective. He shut out the A's again in Game 2, pitched a complete game 5-1 victory in Game 5, and nailed down the decisive Game 7 in relief by getting the last out in the ninth inning. Altogether, he gave up only 12 hits and one run in 18⅓ innings — an ERA of 0.36 — as St. Louis triumphed in seven games. Hallahan's dominance is even more impressive because the A's featured a predominantly righthanded-hitting lineup, including fearsome sluggers Jimmie Foxx and Al Simmons.
After two more winning campaigns for non-contending Cardinal clubs, Hallahan won only eight games, losing 12, for the 1934 edition. But the Gashouse Gang won the National League title and gave Hallahan one more chance to experience the big stage. In Game 2 of the 1934 World Series, against the Detroit Tigers, Hallahan started against Detroit ace Schoolboy Rowe and left with one out in the eighth inning of a 2-2 tie. Detroit won the game in the ninth, 3-2, but overall the Cardinals again prevailed in seven games.
Altogether, in seven World Series games and 39⅓ innings, Hallahan won three games, lost one and compiled a sparkling ERA of 1.51.
He stayed with the Cardinals until May 31, 1936, when he was sold to the Cincinnati Reds, then a second-division team. His career statistics suffered with the Reds and his final club, the cellar-dwelling Philadelphia Phillies. Over his last two seasons, 1937-38, Hallahan won four and lost 17 games.
He finished with a regular-season record of 102 victories and 94 defeats, 856 strikouts and 779 walks, and an ERA of 4.03 in 1,740 innings pitched.
After retiring from baseball, Hallahan worked as a supervisor for General Aniline and Film Co. in Johnson City, New York. He died at age 78 in Binghamton.

Saturday, March 22, 2008

List of unsuccessful United States Presidential candidates who received at least one electoral vote
This is a list of unsuccessful candidates for the office of President of the United States. Presidents who failed bids at reelection are not included. In order to be included on the list, a candidate must have received at least one electoral college vote. Note that some of these candidates went on to win the presidency in subsequent elections.

Friday, March 21, 2008

Bengkulu (city)
Bengkulu is a city on the west coast of Sumatra island. The city is capital of the Bengkulu province of Indonesia.

Thursday, March 20, 2008

Boise is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Idaho. It is the county seat of Ada County and the principal city of the Boise metropolitan area.
As of the 2000 census, Boise's population was 185,787 (2006 estimate: 201,287).

Geography and climate
An apocryphal tale tells that the Lewis & Clark expedition, after trekking for weeks through rough terrain, happened upon the sight of the Boise River Valley. A french guide overwhelmed by the sight of the verdant river yelled "Les Bois! Les Bois!" and this is how Boise got its name. In the 1820's French furtrappers set traps in the area where Boise now lies. Though mostly an area of high desert, a prominent landmark was the tree lined Boise River Valley, which they called "La Riviere Boise" which means "wooded river." Though the connection between the Lewis & Clark tale and the naming of the city is dubious, it is clear that the area was referred to as Boise long before the establishment of Fort Boise.
The original Fort Boise was 40 miles (64 km) west, down the Boise River, near the confluence with the Snake River at the Oregon border. This fort was erected by the Hudson's Bay Company in the 1830s. It was abandoned in the 1850s, but massacres along the Oregon Trail prompted the U.S. Army to re-establish a fort in the area in 1863, during the U.S. Civil War. The new location was selected because it was near the intersection of the Oregon Trail and a major road connecting the Boise Basin (Idaho City) and the Owyhee mining areas, both booming at the time. Idaho City was the largest city in the area, but the new Fort Boise grew rapidly (as a staging area to Idaho City) and Boise was incorporated as a city in 1864. The first capital of Idaho was Lewiston, but Boise replaced it in 1865.


MacGibbon, Elma (1904). Leaves of knowledge. Shaw & Borden Co. Available online through the Washington State Library's Classics in Washington History collection Elma MacGibbons reminiscences of her travels in the United States starting in 1898, which were mainly in Oregon and Washington. Includes chapter "Boise, the capital of Idaho." Further reading

Boise and its surrounding metropolitan area have seen dramatic growth through the 1990s and 2000s. As of 2004 the city of Boise estimated the metropolitan area (Boise, Meridian, Nampa, Caldwell) had a population of 526,656.

Recent figures
As of the census of 2000, there were 185,787 people, 74,438 households, and 46,523 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,913.1/mi². There were 77,850 housing units at an average density of 1,220.7/mi². The racial makeup of the city was 92.15% White, 0.77% Black or African American, 0.70% Native American, 2.08% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 1.74% from other races, and 2.39% from two or more races. 4.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.The top 5 ethnic groups in Boise are · German - 19%[2] · English - 16% · Irish - 11% · Scottish - 3% · Norwegian - 3
There were 74,438 households out of which 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.5% were non-families. 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.03.
In the city, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 11.7% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $42,432, and the median income for a family was $52,014. Males had a median income of $36,893 versus $26,173 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,696. About 5.9% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.7% of those under age 18 and 6% of those age 65 or over.

2000 Census
Boise frequently receives national recognition for its quality of life and business climate. Some recent national rankings:

Best places for business and careers: # 3 (Forbes Magazine, 2007) Boise, Idaho Accolades
Boise is the headquarters for several major companies, such as Washington Group International (successor to Morrison Knudsen), Micron Technology (the area's largest private employer.
Varney Airlines, founded by Walter Varney, was formed in Boise. The company is the root of present day United Airlines, which still serves the city at the newly renovated and upgraded Boise Airport.

The city is home to the Boise School District, which includes 34 elementary schools, 8 junior high schools, 5 high schools and 2 specialty schools. Part of the Meridian School District (the largest district in Idaho) overlaps into Boise city limits.
The city is home to six public high schools: Boise High School, Borah High School, Capital High School, Timberline High School as well as the Meridian district's Centennial High School and the alternative Mountain Cove High School. Boise's private schools include Bishop Kelly High School (Catholic), and Baccalaureate accredited Riverstone Community School.
Post-secondary educational options in Boise include Boise State University and George Fox University, as well as a wide range of technical schools. Boise is home to Boise Bible College, an undergraduate degree-granting college that exists to train leaders for churches as well as missionaries for the world. Nearby Meridian is home to a campus of the University of Phoenix.
Boise is one of the largest cities in the United States that does not have a community college. The issue has received a fair amount of attention from city and state officials in recent years. As of May 2007 a community college special district was formed, with the intention of starting a community college in Nampa, Idaho.

Numbering about 15,000, Boise's Basque community is the largest such community in the United States and the fourth largest in the world outside Argentina, Venezuela and the Basque Country in Spain and France.

A number of recreational opportunities are available in Boise, including extensive hiking and biking in the foothills to the immediate north of downtown and an extensive urban trail system called the Boise River Greenbelt that runs along the river. The Boise River itself is a common destination for fishing, swimming and rafting.
Bogus Basin Mountain Resort hosts several winter activities, including cross-country and downhill skiing, snowboarding and snow tubing. "Bogus" is just 16 miles (26 km) outside city limits (less than an hour drive from downtown).
Minor professional sports teams in Boise include the short-season Class A Boise Hawks (Minor League Baseball), the Idaho Steelheads of the ECHL, and the Idaho Stampede of the NBA Development League. An arenafootball2 franchise, the Boise Burn, began play in 2007.
The Boise State University campus is home to Velma V. Morrison Center for the Performing Arts, which hosts local and national fine arts performances; Bronco Stadium, the 30,000 seat football stadium known for its blue AstroPlay field; and Taco Bell Arena, a 12,000 seat basketball and entertainment venue which opened in 1982 as the BSU Pavillion. Boise State University is known primarily for the recent successes of its football team, although it is also a fairly well regarded commuter school for undergraduate students.
The Roady's Humanitarian Bowl football game (formerly known as the MPC Computers Bowl) is held in late December of each year, and pairs a team from the Western Athletic Conference with an Atlantic Coast Conference team.
The World Center for Birds of Prey is located just outside city limits, and is a key part of the re-establishment of the Peregrine falcon and the subsequent removal from the Endangered Species list. The center is currently breeding the very rare California condor, among many other rare and endangered species.
The city has been cited by publications like Forbes, Fortune and Sunset for its quality of life.
The cornerstone mall in Boise, Boise Towne Square Mall, is also a major shopping attraction for Boise, Nampa, Caldwell, and surrounding areas and has recently been through an upgrade along with adding new retailers.

Major attractions

Main article: Media in Boise, Idaho Sister cities
The major Interstate serving Boise is I-84, with I-184 branching toward the northeast. There is also a network of bike paths throughout the city and surrounding region.
Commercial air service is provided at the Boise Airport, recently renovated to accommodate the growing number of passengers flying in and out of Boise. Public bus transportation is provided by ValleyRide and the Boise Urban Stages (BUS).

Despite Boise's small population, it occupies a large area, 64 mi² according to the United States Census Bureau. Like most major metropolitan areas it is divided into several named parts. These include the Bench, the North End, West Boise and Downtown among others.

Parts of the city
Downtown Boise is Boise's cultural center and home to many small businesses and several skyscrapers. Downtown Boise has an array of shopping and dining choices. Centrally, 8th street contains a pedestrian zone with street side cafes and restaurants. Downtown Boise is home to many local restaurants, bars and boutiques and supports a lively night life.
Downtown Boise's economy was threatened in the late 1990's by extensive growth around the Boise Towne Square Mall have been created to combat this trend.

Downtown Boise
The North End contains many of Boise's older homes and is known for its tree-lined drives such as Harrison Boulevard, and for its quiet neighborhoods near the downtown area. From Camel's Back Park is home to many small restaurants (several with outdoor dining) and businesses. The North End also hosts several events such as the annual Hyde Park Street Fair.

The North End
Southwest Boise has traditionally been known for its more country-like aesthetics. It contains sparsely populated neighborhoods built from the 1960s to the early 1980s. Many include acre-sized plots and the occasional farmhouse and pastures. Growth in the area was limited in the 1980s due to a moratorium on new construction to prevent urban sprawl. Since this has been lifted there has been widespread growth of new homes and neighborhoods. The area lies fairly close to Interstate 84, theaters, shopping, the airport, and the Boise Bench area.

Southwest Boise
Northwest Boise lies blanketed against the Boise Foothills to the north, the major thoroughfare State Street to the south, the City of Eagle to the west, and Downtown Boise to the east. It contains an eclectic mix of old and new neighborhoods, including Lakeharbor, which features the private Silver Lake, a reclaimed quarry. Northwest Boise has some pockets of older homes with a similar aesthetic to the North End, yet housing prices tend to be lower. Downtown is minutes away, as is Veteran's Memorial Park and easy access to the Boise Greenbelt. Across the river sits the Boise Bench and to the west is fast access to the bedroom communities of Eagle, Star, and Middleton.

Northwest Boise
Warm Springs is centered around the tree-lined drive Warm Springs Avenue and contains many of Boise's largest and most expensive homes (many of which were erected by wealthy miners and businessmen around the turn of the century; Victorian styles feature prominently). The area gets its name from the natural hot springs that flow from Boise's fault line and warm many of the homes in the area.

Warm Springs
The far east end of Warm Springs was once known as Barber Town, featuring a hotel with hot springs nestled into the foothills. It now has some new residential developments, with easy access to Highway 21, which leads to the south-central Idaho mountains; the Boise River; the Boise Foothills; and the Idaho Shakespeare Festival.

East End
South East Boise spans from Boise State University to Micron Technology - all areas between Federal Way and the Boise River. The older area just south of the University can be described as a cross between the North End and the Boise bench. The rest of South East Boise was developed in the last thirty years with suburban style homes. Unlike the more typical flat suburban sprawl, residents of South East Boise are reminded of their city's natural beauty as they catch a close view of Table Rock, or drive along the winding Parkcenter Blvd. along the Boise River. Columiba Village and the older sub-division Oregon Trail Heights were the first major planned community in South East Boise with an elementary and middle school all within walking distance from all homes. Developed with the middle carved out for schools as well as a large soccer complex (over 20 fields) as well as a baseball complex, swimming pools as well as the best view in the valley. Most people consider this end of Boise a hidden gem as just about everything is about 15 minutes from home: the river, greenbelt, the mountains, lakes, snow, high mountain desert, etc. The reason being the subdivsion is located at the intersections of Interstate 84, Idaho 21 and Federal Way (former US Highway) which are all major arteries to get anywhere fast in Boise.

South East Boise
The Boise Bench is south of Downtown Boise and is raised in elevation approximately 60 feet. The bench is named such because the sudden rise in elevation gives the prominent appearance of a step, or bench. The Bench (or Benches, there are 3 actual benches throughout the Boise Valley) was created as an ancient shoreline to the old river channel. The Bench is home to the old Boise Train Depot, Vista Village shopping center, and extensive residential neighborhoods. Due south of the Boise Bench is the Boise Airport, raised up on another "bench".

The Boise Bench

About the name
The name Boise comes from the French word boisé, which means "wooded". Many people assume that it means "tree", but the French word for "tree" is arbre, whereas the word bois means "wood". One legend claims that French-Canadian fur trappers of the early 1800s came over the mountains looked down upon the Boise River Valley and exclaimed "Les Bois!" (the wood!). This is also how Boise gained its nickname 'The City of Trees'. In actuality, the name was apparently a translation of an earlier English name for the Boise River, the Wood River.

Origin of Name
Many residents (generally those who have lived in the area longer) use the pronunciation of "Boise" as a shibboleth, insisting that [bɔɪsi] is the only correct pronunciation. Others not native to Boise consider [bɔɪzi] to be an equally valid pronunciation. According to the official city website, the correct way to say Boise is [bɔɪsi].


Boise State Football
The Old Boise Train Depot
Boise Downtown

Wednesday, March 19, 2008

Brad Childress (born June 27, 1956 in Aurora, Illinois, U.S.) is a professional American football coach. Attended High School at Marmion Academy. Prior to being selected as the head coach of the Minnesota Vikings beginning with the 2006 season, Childress worked as an assistant coach for various college organizations and NFL franchises, most recently with the Philadelphia Eagles.

On January 6, 2006, Childress was hired to be the head coach of the Minnesota Vikings. This choice was the result of a fervent and short-lived selection process. Former coach Mike Tice was informed that his contract would not be renewed shortly after the Vikings' last game of the 2005 season on December 31, and rumors began to circulate about Childress as the new head coach on January 5. Four candidates were interviewed by the Vikings: Kansas City Chiefs offensive coordinator Al Saunders, Indianapolis Colts assistant head coach Jim Caldwell, and former Vikings defensive coordinator Ted Cottrell.
The short length and small breadth of the selection process was questioned by some in the local media. Vikings owner Zygi Wilf, who is known as an intense football fan but not as an expert on the game, was criticized for not first hiring a top-shelf personnel manager who would then be tasked with hiring a new head coach. Childress had never played football at the college level or the pros. He had never been a head coach before and never called his own plays either, which he would be doing with the Vikings.

Brad Childress Criticism
Childress is married and has four children. His wife's name is Dru-Ann, and his children's names are Cara, Kyle, Andrew, and Christopher. He is one of a current triumvirate of Eastern Illinois University alums that are head coaches in the NFL, along with Mike Shanahan and Sean Payton. He has recently joined Minnetonka Country Club in Minnetonka Minnesota

Tuesday, March 18, 2008

Electronic computer
A computer is a machine which manipulates data according to a list of instructions.
Computers take numerous physical forms. The first devices that resemble modern computers date to the mid-20th century (around 1940 - 1941), although the computer concept and various machines similar to computers existed prior. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers.  Meuer, Hans; Strohmaier, Erich; Simon, Horst; Dongarra, Jack (2006-11-13). Architectures Share Over Time. TOP500. Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
Stokes, Jon (2007). Inside the Machine: An Illustrated Introduction to Microprocessors and Computer Architecture. San Francisco: No Starch Press. ISBN 978-1-59327-104-6. 

Monday, March 17, 2008

Apollinary Vasnetsov
Apollinary Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Russian: Аполлинарий Михайлович Васнецов) (July 25 (N.S. August 6), 1856, the village of Riabovo, Vyatka province - January 23, 1933, Moscow) was a Russian painter and graphic artist whose elder brother was the more famous Viktor Vasnetsov. He specialized in scenes from the medieval history of Moscow.
Vasnetsov was a painter and a graphic artist. He did not receive a formal artistic education. He studied under his older brother Viktor Vasnetsov, the famous Russian painter. From 1883, he and his brother lived and worked in Abramtsevo where he fell under the influence of Vasily Polenov. In 1898–1899, he traveled across Europe. In addition to epic landscapes of Russian nature, Apollinary Vasnetsov created his own genre of historical landscape reconstruction on the basis of historical and archaeological data. His paintings present a visual picture of medieval Moscow. He was a member of the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions (Peredvizhniki) from 1899, and an academician from 1900. He became one of the founders and supervisors of the Union of Russian Artists.
Kremlin, 1892
The street in the town: the set to the opera The Oprichnik by Pyotr Tchaikovsky, 1911
In Moscow Kremlin

Sunday, March 16, 2008

This article is part of the series on: Norwegian language
Variants: Official: Bokmål | Nynorsk Unofficial: Riksmål | Landsmål/Høgnorsk Norwegian language struggle Norwegian dialects
Use: Alphabet Phonology

Other topics:Bokmål Norwegian literature Norwegian Sign Language Norwegian Language Council

Bokmål (lit. "book language") is the most commonly used of the two official written standards of Norwegian, the other being Nynorsk. Bokmål is used by around 85% of the population (regardless of dialect) and is the standard most commonly taught to foreign students of Norwegian. Before 1929 the official term for Bokmål was Riksmål. Historically, Bokmål was a Norwegianized variety of Danish, which was commonly written in Norway until the start of the 20th century (see Dano-Norwegian).


Saturday, March 15, 2008

Protoscience refers to historical philosophical disciplines, developed prior to the Age of Enlightenment, that with the development of scientific method developed into science proper (prescientific). A standard example is alchemy, which from the 18th century became chemistry, or pre-modern astrology which from the 17th century became astronomy.
By extension, "protoscience" may be used in reference to any "set of beliefs or theories that have not yet been tested adequately by the scientific method but which are otherwise consistent with existing science".

Protoscience Examples

History of science

  • History of science in early cultures
    Science in the Middle Ages
    History of science in the Renaissance
    Philosophy of science
    Methodical culturalism
    Pathological science
    Fringe science
    Natural magic
    List of pseudoscientific theories
    Obsolete scientific theories

Friday, March 14, 2008

This is a list of astronomical observatories ordered by name, along with initial dates of operation (where an accurate date is available) and location. The list also includes a final year of operation for many observatories that are no longer in operation. While other sciences, such as volcanology and meteorology, also use facilities called observatories for research and observations, this list is limited to observatories that are used to observe celestial objects.
An astronomical observatory is generally a building or group of buildings constructed to aid in observations of astronomical objects such as planets, asteroids, stars, nebulae, and galaxies. In most cases, astronomical observations are made using different types of telescopes that serve to increase the apparent angular size and brightness of distant celestial objects allowing them to be better studied and understood.
Many modern telescopes and observatories are located in space in order to avoid the effects of atmospheric turbulence that plague ground based telescopes. These space observatories can also be used to observe astronomical objects in wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum that cannot penetrate the Earth's atmosphere (such as ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays) and are thus impossible to observe using ground-based telescopes.
Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z



List of astronomical observatories C



  • La Silla Observatory

  • Llano de Chajnantor Observatory

  • Paranal Observatory

La Silla Observatory
Llano de Chajnantor Observatory
Paranal Observatory
1999 F






  • Anderson Mesa Station

Anderson Mesa Station
1959 M

  • Pic du Midi Observatory

  • Toulouse Observatory

  • 1878

  • 1733

Pic du Midi Observatory
Toulouse Observatory
Pyrenees, France
Toulouse, France N

  • Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory

  • Gemini Observatory

  • Kitt Peak National Observatory

  • National Solar Observatory

  • Atacama Large Millimeter Array

  • Green Bank Telescope

  • Very Large Array

  • Very Long Baseline Array

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory
Gemini Observatory
Kitt Peak National Observatory
National Solar Observatory
Atacama Large Millimeter Array
Green Bank Telescope
Very Large Array
Very Long Baseline Array O




  • Southern African Large Telescope

  • MMT Observatory

  • Mount Graham International Observatory

  • Mount Lemmon Observatory

Southern African Large Telescope
Karoo, South Africa
MMT Observatory
Mount Graham International Observatory
Mount Lemmon Observatory T


U.S. Naval Observatory (Flagstaff Station)
Flagstaff, Arizona, (USA) V

  • Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope

  • Mount Graham, Arizona, USA

Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope
Mount Graham, Arizona, USA W



Thursday, March 13, 2008

Pope Athanasius I of Alexandria (c. 293-May 2, 373) also known as St. Athanasius The Apostolic (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios) was a theologian, Patriarch of Alexandria, and a noted Egyptian leader of the fourth century. He is best remembered for his role in the conflict with Arius and Arianism. He is revered as a saint by the Oriental Orthodox & Eastern Orthodox Church, Roman Catholic & Eastern Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church, and the Anglican Communion, and is regarded as a great leader of the Church by Protestants. He is chronologically the first Doctor of the Church so designated by the Roman Catholic Church, and he is counted as one of the four Great Doctors of the Eastern Church. His feast day is January 18 in the Eastern Orthodox Churches and May 2 in Western Christianity and the Coptic Orthodox Church.

Athansius's other works include his two-part Against the Heathen and The Incarnation of the Word of God. Completed around 335, they constitute the first classic work of developed Greek Orthodox theology. In the first part, Athanasius refutes several pagan practices and beliefs. The second part presents teachings on the redemption.


Historical significance
The Alexandria of his boyhood was an epitome—intellectually, morally, and politically—of the ethnically diverse Graeco-Roman world. It was the most important center of trade in the whole empire; and its primacy as an emporium of ideas was more commanding than that of Rome or Constantinople, Antioch or Marseilles. Its famous "Catechetical School", while sacrificing none of its famous passion for orthodoxy since the days of Pantaenus, Clement, and Origen, had begun to take on an almost secular character in the comprehensiveness of its interests, and had counted influential pagans among its serious auditors.
Athanasius seems to have been brought early in life under the immediate supervision of the ecclesiastical authorities of his native city. A story has been preserved by Rufinus (Hist. Eccl., I, xiv). The bishop Alexander, so the tale runs, had invited a number of fellow prelates to meet him at breakfast after a great religious function. While Alexander was waiting for his guests to arrive, he stood by a window, watching a group of boys at play on the seashore below the house. He had not observed them long before he discovered that they were imitating the elaborate ritual of Christian baptism. He sent for the children and, in the investigation that followed, it was discovered that one of the boys (none other than Athanasius), had acted the part of the bishop, and in that character had actually baptized several of his companions in the course of their play. Alexander determined to recognize the make-believe baptisms as genuine, and decided that Athanasius and his playfellows should go into training in order to prepare themselves for a clerical career.
Sozomen speaks of his "fitness for the priesthood", and calls attention to the significant circumstance that he was "from his tenderest years practically self-taught". "Not long after this," adds the same authority, the Bishop Alexander "invited Athanasius to be his commensal and secretary. He had been well educated, and was versed in grammar and rhetoric, and had already, while still a young man, and before reaching the episcopate, given proof to those who dwelt with him of his wisdom and acumen" (Soz., II, xvii). That "wisdom and acumen" manifested themselves in a varied environment. While still a deacon under Alexander's care, he seems to have been brought for a while into close relations with some of the solitaries of the Egyptian desert, and in particular with the Anthony the Great, whose life he is said to have written.

Early life
Further information: Arian controversy
In about 319, when Athanasius was a deacon, a presbyter named Arius came into a direct conflict with Alexander of Alexandria. It appears that Arius reproached Alexander for what he felt were misguided or heretical teachings being taught by the bishop.
There were two more brief periods when Athanasius was exiled. In the spring of 365, after the accession of Emperor Valens to the throne, troubles again arose. Athanasius was once more compelled to seek safety from his persecutors in concealment (October 365), which lasted, however, only for four months.
From 366 he was able to serve as bishop in peace until his death. Athanasius was restored on at least five separate occasions, perhaps as many as seven. This gave rise to the expression "Athanasius contra mundum" or "Athanasius against the world".
He spent his final years in repairing all the damage done during the earlier years of violence, dissent, and exile, and returning to his writing and preaching undisturbed. On the 2nd of May 373, having consecrated Peter II, one of his presbyters as his successor, he died quietly in his own house.

Opposition to Arianism
Athanasius spent a good deal of his energy on polemical writings against his theological opponents. Examples include: Orations Against the Arians, his defence of the divinity of the Holy Spirit (Letters to Serapion in the 360s, and On the Holy Spirit) against Macedonianism.
Arguably his most read work is his biography of Anthony the Great entitled Vita Antonii, or Life of Antony. This biography later served as an inspiration to Christian monastics in both the East and the West. The so-called Athanasian Creed dates from well after Athanasius's death and draws upon the phraseology of Augustine's De trinitate.
In Coptic literature St. Athanasius, is the first patriarch of Alexandria to use Coptic, as well as Greek in his writings.

See also: Biblical canon
Athanasius is also the first person to identify the same 27 books of the New Testament that are in use today. Up until then, various similar lists of works to be read in churches were in use. A milestone in the evolution of the canon of New Testament books is his Easter letter from Alexandria, written in 367, usually referred to as his 39th Festal Letter. Pope Damasus, the Bishop of Rome in 382, promulgated a list of books which contained a New Testament canon identical to that of Athanasius. See the article, Biblical canon, for more details.

New Testament canon

Athanasius' life was mired in controversy, and recent scholarly works at time paint a less than flattering picture of the saint. His ascension to the station of Bishop in Alexandria occurred under questionable circumstances. Upon the death of his predecessor Alexander, in 328 C.E., more than fifty bishops gathered to confer a new leader to the Alexandrian see. While Alexander had been priming Athanasius to assume the bishopric after his death, he was not unanimously supported, and questions of his age (the minimum age to become a bishop was thirty, and questions remain to this day if he was yet that old), as well as less than overwhelming support, did not help his candidacy. Growing impatient, Athanasius took a small number of bishops who supported his claim, and held a private consecration making him bishop. His ascension would later be declared the will of the people. Serious questions also surround the reliability of his historical accounts. Athanasius seems to have severely misrepresented his own life and events, in order to warp the truth behind his own actions, and those of his enemies; especially when discussing his theological opponents, the Arians.

Some modern historians suggest that the tactics of Athanasius were a significant factor in his success. He did not hesitate to back up his theological views with the use of force. In Alexandria, he assembled a group that could instigate a riot in the city if needed. It was an arrangement "built up and perpetuated by violence." He played a clear role in making the Constantinian shift a part of the theology of the church.

Athanasius Allegations of violence
Athanasius presented his opponents, the Arians as a cohesive group that backed Arius' views and followed him as a leader. It is now accepted by most scholars that the Arian Party were not a monolithic group. He often blamed charges and accusations leveled at him on "Arian madmen" who he claimed conspired to destroy him and Christianity. The Arian party, as described by Athanasius, may not have existed in the form he portrayed it in his writings. The view of Arianism that exists to this day among most Christians would not have existed were it not for Athanasius.

However, there are also many modern historians who object to this view and point out that such hostile attitude towards Athanasius is based on an unfair judgment of historical sources.

See also

Arnold, Duane W.-H., 1991 The Early Episcopal Career of Athanasius of Alexandria
Alexander of Alexandria "Catholic Epistle", The Ecole Initiative,
Arius, "Arius' letter to Eusebius of Nicomedia" from Theodoret's, Ecclesiastical History, ser. 2, vol. 3, 41, The Ecole Initiative,
Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-140-51312-4.
Barnes, Timothy D., Athanasius and Constantius : Theology and Politics in the Constantinian Empire (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1993).
Barnes, Timothy D., Constantine and Eusebius (Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press, 1981)
Brakke, David, 1995. Athanasius and the Politics of Asceticism
Chadwick, Henry, "Faith and Order at the Council of Nicaea", Harvard Theological Review LIII (Cambridge Mass: 1960), 171-195.
Ernest, James D., The Bible in Athanasius of Alexandria (Leiden: Brill, 2004).
Haas, Christopher "The Arians of Alexandria", Vigiliae Christianae Vol. 47, no. 3 (1993), 234-245.
Kannengiesser, Charles, "Alexander and Arius of Alexandria: The last Ante-Nicene theologians", Miscelanea En Homenaje Al P. Antonio Orbe Compostellanum Vol. XXXV, no. 1-2. (Santiago de Compostela, 1990), 391-403.
Kannengiesser, Charles "Athanasius of Alexandria vs. Arius: The Alexandrian Crisis", in The Roots of Egyptian Christianity (Studies in Antiquity and Christianity), ed. Birger A. Pearson and James E. Goehring (1986), 204-215.
Ng, Nathan K. K., 2001 The Spirituality of Athanasius
Rubenstein, Richard E., When Jesus Became God: The Epic Fight over Christ's Divinity in the Last Days of Rome (New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1999).
Williams, Rowan Arius: Heresy and Tradition (London: Darton, Longman and Todd, 1987).