Wednesday, February 27, 2008

A transcontinental country is a country belonging to more than one continent. The definitions used may vary according to which criteria are used (whether purely geographical or, on the other hand, political, economic or cultural criteria). An example is Russia, which has its historical core as well as most of its population (74%), economic activity and political institutions (such as its capital city) in Europe, yet geographically most of the territory (77%) is actually in Asia. By most definitions, Russia straddles Eurasia.

Definitions of the continents
Continents are called so because they are continuous bodies of land. Thus, an island is not strictly part of any continent, but many islands can be associated with one by geographical proximity (or also by historical convention, political ties or similar "human" criteria). For example, Sumatra, Singapore and Hainan are not literally "in" Asia; nevertheless they are closer to Asia than to any other continent, and also are most closely associated with Asia, so this article will consider them Asiatic islands, and Greece and Indonesia transcontinental countries (likewise for other continents and their adjacent islands). Alternate associations would be defensible in some cases.
Using this definition, the following countries could all be considered transcontinental by virtue of the fact that an integral part of their national territory consists of islands that are situated within the continental shelf of another continent or are otherwise geographically closer to a continent on the mainland of which they have no territory (mainland continent shown below in bold text):
Four countries also include both continental territory and islands in mid-Pacific Ocean; see Oceania, below. At least four countries also include both continental territory and Antarctic island territories recognized by international law; see Antarctica, below.

Australia (Australia, Oceania, Asia, and Antarctica)
Colombia (South America and North America)
Denmark (Europe and North America (if one includes Greenland))
France (Europe, North America, South America, Oceania, Africa, and Antarctica)
Greece (Europe and Asia)
Italy (Europe and Africa)
Netherlands (Europe, South America, and North America (if one includes the overseas Netherlands Antilles and Aruba))
Norway (Europe and Antarctica (if one includes Bouvet Island))
Portugal (Europe and Africa)
South Africa (Africa and Antarctica (if the Prince Edward Islands are counted as Antarctic islands))
Spain (Europe and Africa)
United Kingdom (if one includes the British overseas territories, the UK still covers ALL continents: the British Isles minus the Republic of Ireland and plus the Channel Islands and Gibraltar in Europe; Ascension Island, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, and Gough Island in Africa; Bermuda, the Turks and Caicos Islands, the Cayman Islands, the British Virgin Islands, Anguilla, and Montserrat in North America; the Falkland Islands in South America; the Pitcairn Islands in Oceania; Akrotiri and Dhekelia and British Indian Ocean Territory in Asia; and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in Antarctica.)
United States (North America, Oceania, and Asia)
Venezuela (South America and North America (if one includes Isla Aves))
Yemen (Asia and Africa) Islands
The nature and boundaries of Europe are as much sociopolitical questions as geographical. Many geologists and geographers agree that Europe and Asia share many common geographical features and they are sometimes referred to as the single continent Eurasia. Europe is nevertheless a distinct geographical entity, mostly a super-peninsula of the mainland of Asia.
The eastern boundary of Europe has been variously defined since antiquity. Herodotus regarded Europe as extending all the way to the Eastern Ocean, and being as long as (and much larger than) Africa and Asia together. The modern world is in consensus that Europe ends at the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains, but the boundaries between these latter two features are uncertain; that leading from the Urals to the Black Sea, for example, has been drawn by different authorities as at the Don, the Kuma-Manych Depression, the Caucasus, the Russian frontier or the Rioni River.
Western sources (e.g. the National Geographic Society) usually state that the Europe-Asia boundary follows the watershed of the Ural Mountains from near Kara, Russia on the Kara Sea to the source of the Ural River, then follows that river to the Caspian Sea. The border then follows the watershed of the Caucasus Mountains from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea.
By this definition, the Ural Mountains are on the border of Europe and Asia, likewise for the Greater Caucasus (although Mount Elbrus, which would be the highest point in Europe, is north of the watershed divide, and as such would be entirely in Europe by this definition). The Lesser Caucasus is located entirely in Asia. Russia and Kazakhstan have both European (western) and Asian (eastern) parts (and Russia even had a North American part, before Alaska was sold to the United States in 1867). The Turkish city Istanbul lies in both Europe and Asia, effectively making it a transcontinental city. Georgia and Azerbaijan both have most of their territory in Asia, although each has small parts of its northern territory in Europe.
Due to Kazakhstan's Central Asian culture and political orientation, it is very rarely regarded as a European country, despite its sizable territory in Europe. Many would argue, as has been the case with the like of Professor Torosyan, Dr. Lewis and M. Shearmen of the Charlton Institute, that Kazakhstan is in fact not a trancontinental country, but rather lies geographically as well as culturally within Asia. Three nations of the South Caucasus, however – Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia – have a stronger sociopolitical claim to be European. Of these three, only Georgia and Azerbaijan are generally regarded as having portions of territory in Europe, but Armenia may be regarded as European for cultural and historical reasons. All three, however, are typically excluded from lists of European states.
According to the standard Russian/Soviet definition, the boundary between Europe and Asia runs along the Mugodzhar Hills, then down the Emba River to the Caspian Sea. From the Caspian Sea it runs to the Black Sea along the Kuma-Manych Depression, marked by the rivers of the same name. This definition was in use by Russian geographers since mid-18th century; it was officially recommended for use in textbooks by the Geographical Society of USSR in 1958. It places all of the Caucasus, including countries of Georgia and Azerbaijan and North Caucasian republics of Chechnya and Dagestan, entirely in Asia.
Russia's Vaygach Island and Novaya Zemlya extend northward from the northern end of the Ural Mountains and are a continuation of the chain into the Arctic Ocean. They separate the European Barents Sea and the Asian Kara Sea, and may be considered part of Europe or Asia. The maps on this page show them with Europe, as they are used in the calculations. The Russian Arctic archipelago of Franz Josef Land farther north is also associated with Europe. All of these Arctic islands are part of the European Arkhangelsk Oblast.

Europe and Asia

Meso-Caucasus definition This definition defines the border between the Caspian and Black seas, as follows: The border goes between the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus, and is marked by Rioni and lower Kura rivers, although this border is ill-defined between the two rivers. This definition leaves a greater part of Georgia and Armenia in Europe.
Lesser Caucasus definition Though very rare, this definition defines the border between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea as the watershed of the Lesser Caucasus. This definition places Armenia and Georgia almost entirely in Europe, and Turkey and Iran almost entirely in Asia; however, some isolated spots of these five countries can be placed on the other continent.
Political Russian division The division of Russia, considering the Russian Federal Subjects, is the following:

  • On Europe's border, from north to south: Nenetsia Autonomous Okrug, Komi Republic, Perm Krai, Bashkortostan Republic and Orenburg Oblast;
    On Asia's border, from north to south: Yamalia Autonomous Okrug, Khantia-Mansia Autonomous Okrug, Sverdlovsk Oblast and Chelyabinsk Oblast. Lesser accepted Europe and Asia divisions
    Other nations have strong cultural ties with Europe, such as the northern African states of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. However, the clear boundary of the Mediterranean Sea excludes these nations geographically. Some in Israel, Morocco and Tunisia have shown ambition to become a state of the European Union, but currently full membership is disallowed (Morocco applied to join, but was rejected on geographical grounds). Of course, many other countries outside Europe have cultural and historical ties to Europe as a consequence of colonization and migration.

    Culturally European states
    See also Geographic criteria for EU membershipTranscontinental nation Europe ends in the west at the Atlantic Ocean, although Iceland (in the Atlantic, between Europe and North America) is usually considered European, as is the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Greenland is geographically associated with North America but politically associated with Europe (as it is still part of Denmark, although EU law no longer applies there). Turkey, despite having only 3% of its land in Europe, has been a member of the Council of Europe since 1949 and an official candidate for membership of the European Union since 2005. Islands geographically associated with one continent sometimes have stronger political and cultural ties to another. For example, Cyprus, an island geographically a part of Asia, was admitted to the Council of Europe in 1961 and joined the EU in 2004. Cape Verde, an island group off the Atlantic coast of Africa, has also shown an interest in joining the EU. Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan, also geographically Asian states (although Azerbaijan and Georgia have a part of their land in Europe,) have all joined the Council of Europe.

    Politically European states
    The natural geographical boundaries of Africa are the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. The boundary between them has been drawn either up the Gulf of Suez or up the Gulf of Aqaba. On purely geological grounds, the boundary could be drawn along the fault-line into the Jordan River valley (which would make Israel, Lebanon and a small part of Syria part of Africa.)
    The usual line today is at the Isthmus of Suez along the path of the Suez Canal. This makes the Sinai Peninsula geographically Asian, and Egypt a transcontinental country. Nevertheless Egypt is commonly referred to as an African state, because most of its population and territory are there. Geopolitically, Egypt is sometimes regarded as an Asian state, and it is usually considered part of the transcontinental geopolitical region of the Middle East.
    In historical geography, several of the larger Mediterranean islands have often been more akin to Africa than to Europe or Asia. Ancient Egypt often ruled Cyprus, and sometimes Crete and Rhodes. The Roman Empire grouped Crete with Cyrenaica (in ancient Libya.) The Balearic Islands and half of Sicily were ruled from Carthage.
    The Canary Islands and Madeira Islands are off the Atlantic coast of Morocco, and although they are geographically part of Africa, they are under the rule of Spain and Portugal, respectively, and geopolitically part of Europe. Under Moorish rule prior to Southwest European colonization, they were fully integrated into Africa.
    Mayotte, situated in the Mozambique Channel between Africa and Madagascar (also geographically part of Africa) is under the rule of France, as are Réunion Island east of Madagascar and some scattered islands in the Indian Ocean also associated with Africa. The Seychelles, Mauritius, and Comoros are island nations also associated with Africa.

    The boundaries between Europe and Africa are almost entirely clear-cut and undisputed, since the two continents occupy opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, of which the midway areas are mostly devoid of islands. Spain owns the exclaves of Ceuta and Melilla on the African mainland. Sicily forms an extension of Europe into the heart of the Mediterranean, with only Malta, Pantelleria, and the Pelagie Islands falling into question.
    Malta is geographically associated with Africa but has geopolitically been considered part of Europe since its Christian reconquest. It is closer to the African mainland than the Italian mainland and has historically been associated with Africa much longer. The Maltese people speak a North African dialect of Arabic and are descended from the ancient Libyans, Egyptians, and Phoenicians, as well as the island's Islamic conquerors.
    The Italian islands of Pantelleria and the Pelagie Islands are closer to Tunisia on the African continent than Sicily and thus part of Africa. The Portuguese Atlantic island possession of the Azores is slightly closer to Europe than Africa and is associated with Europe.

    Africa and Europe
    The boundaries between Africa and South America are clear-cut and undisputed, since the two continents occupy opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean, of which the midway areas are devoid of islands. While the uninhabited Brazilian island possession of Saint Peter and Paul Rocks is associated with South America, the British island possessions of Ascension Island, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, and Gough Island are associated with Africa.

    Africa and South America
    The border between North America and South America has been drawn variously, generally somewhere along the Isthmus of Panama.
    One common demarcation follows the Darien Mountains watershed divide along the Colombia-Panama boundary where the isthmus meets the South American continent. Another reckons the continental divide at the Panama Canal, whereby Panama has territory on either side in both continents. Geopolitically (i.e., not strictly geophysical), Panama is usually included with the other North American countries in Central America. The border between North and South America has also been drawn (infrequently) between Costa Rica and Panama, or at one of several other lines across the Isthmus of Panama.
    In other cultures, America is thought of as one continent or supercontinent encompassing the entire landmass between Alaska and Tierra del Fuego. In this way, North, Central and South America are thought of as regions of the greater landmass. America is often regarded as a single continent in Latin America, Spain, and Portugal, along with other countries. The Olympic Rings represent the Americas with a single ring.
    This collection of lands and regions in the Western hemisphere is referred to as the Americas by the English-speaking world. From a sociopolitical and cultural perspective, the Americas are generally divided into Anglo-America (namely the U.S. and Canada, where English prevails) and Latin America (the rest of the Americas, where Romance languages generally predominate). Latin America – particularly Hispanic America – is generally considered a transcontinental region straddling two continents, much like the Middle East. Moreover, the Guyanas are sometimes grouped with the Caribbean region along with Belize and Bermuda (a British possession actually 1000 km east of the US mainland, also sometimes grouped with Anglo-America.) It is not uncommon for what is geopolitically considered North America to be limited to the US, Canada, and sometimes Bermuda.
    The Galápagos Islands in the eastern Pacific Ocean are a possession of Ecuador and associated with South America. The uninhabited French possession of Clipperton Island 600 miles off the Mexican coast is associated with North America. France also continues to control French Guiana on the northern mainland of South America, as well as Saint-Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of Newfoundland and Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint-Barthélemy, and Saint Martin in the North American Caribbean. The Netherlands and the United Kingdom are two other European nations that also continue to control islands in the Caribbean, and the Netherlands Antilles are considered split between North and South America.

    The boundaries between Europe and North America are mostly clear-cut and undisputed, since the two continents occupy opposite sides of the North Atlantic Ocean, of which the midway areas are devoid of islands, except in the north, where the line comes down to Greenland and Iceland. Iceland and the Azores are protusions of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and are associated with and peopled from Europe. Greenland not only is usually considered geographically North American, most of the Greenlander ancestry is from the Inuit people indigenous to northern North America. The Norwegian Arctic islands of Jan Mayen and Svalbard archipelago are associated with Europe. Although Greenland is the closest land to them, they are much closer to Europe than to the North American mainland.

    Europe and North America
    The Bering Strait and Bering Sea separate the landmasses of Asia and North America, as well as forming the international boundaries between Russia and the United States, respectively. This national and continental boundary separates the Diomede Islands in the Bering Strait, with Big Diomede in Russia and Little Diomede in the US. The Aleutian Islands are an island chain extending westward from the Alaska Peninsula toward Russia's Komandorski Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula, as well as an integral part of the transcontinental American state of Alaska. Most of them are associated with North America, except for the westernmost Near Islands, which are beyond the North Aleutians Basin and on Asia's continental shelf, and allow the US to be considered a transcontinental country without Hawaii and other Oceanian island possessions. St. Lawrence Island in the northern Bering Sea belongs to Alaska and may be associated with either continent, as may the Rat Islands in the Aleutian chain.

    Asia and North America
    Indonesia is a multi-island, transcontinental state belonging both to Asia and to Oceania. The geological and zoological border follows the Wallace line. Alternatively it may be divided according to the Melanesia definition – accounting for human language, genetics, history and crafts – placing more territory in Asia (shown by the line labelled M on the map.)
    Indonesia is today more commonly referred to as one of the Southeast Asian countries, and thus simply Asian. East Timor, an independent state that was formerly a territory of Indonesia, is sometimes considered part of Oceania, but is classified by the United Nations as part of the "South-Eastern Asia" block. It is expected to join the Association of Southeast Asian Nations [1] having been involved as a ASEAN Regional Forum member since independence, and participated in the Southeast Asian Games since 2003.
    The Wallace line separates Bali, Borneo, and Mindanao on its Asian side from Lombok, Sulawesi, and the Talaud Islands on the Oceanian side, respectively. This boundary leaves all of The Philippines in Asia.

    Asia and Oceania
    To English-speaking people, Oceania is not considered to be a continent; however, Australia by itself is usually considered one. By such a definition, neither the annexation of Hawaii by the United States in 1898 nor its admission as the 50th American state in 1959 in and of itself made the U.S. a transcontinental nation, although it was transcontinental by virtue of its possession of the Asian islands of the Philippines and western Aleutian Islands.
    If Oceania were considered a continent, rather than the part of the Earth furthest from any of them, the following countries might be considered transcontinental, as occupying land in both Oceanian islands and a continent:

    Chile, with Easter Island and Sala y Gómez Island. The Province of Isla de Pascua consists of these Oceanian islands and, along with the outlying South American Juan Fernández Islands and Desventuradas Islands, is part of the transcontinental Valparaíso Region, which has 1% of its area in Oceania.
    France, with French Polynesia, New Caledonia, and Wallis and Futuna.
    Indonesia, with 21 provinces entirely in Asia and 12 provinces entirely in Oceania.
    Japan, with Minami Torishima, which is administratively part of the transcontinental city of Tokyo, along with other outlying Japanese islands to the south and southeast of the city. The transcontinental Ogasawara Village consists of these islands. [2]
    United Kingdom, with the Pitcairn Islands.
    United States, with the Hawaiian Islands (containing 0.30% of the area and 0.43% of the population of the 50 states), Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, Midway Atoll, Wake Island, Johnston Atoll, Palmyra Atoll, Jarvis Island, and several unorganized territorial islands. Oceania
    The Commonwealth of Australia consists not only of its namesake continent and the island state of Tasmania, but also external island possessions in the sub-Antarctic (see Antarctica below) and to the east and northwest of the continent. Of the tropical island territories, Norfolk Island, the Coral Sea Islands, and Lord Howe Island in the Pacific Ocean and the Ashmore and Cartier Islands in the Indian Ocean are in Oceania, while Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to the west of Sumatra) are associated with Asia. The majority of the ancestry of Australia's Asian island residents is Asian and the majority of them are Muslim or Buddhist. Macquarie Island is part of the transcontinental state of Tasmania and the transcontinental Local Government Area of Huon Valley, while Lord Howe Island is part of New South Wales and the other external islands are federal territories.

    Antarctica and its outlying islands have no permanent population. All land south of 60°S latitude is terra nullius and the Antarctic Treaty System holds all claims to such land in abeyance. Although South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are closer to Antarctica, the inhabited Falkland Islands are closer to South America and the continental boundary separates them from the South Georgia group.
    The following are sub-Antarctic island territories north of 60° and associated with Antarctica:
    If the Prince Edward Islands are considered associated with Antarctica, Cape Town is a transcontinental city and Western Cape is a transcontinental province, since they include the islands.

    Australia: Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Macquarie Island
    France: Crozet Islands, Île Amsterdam, Île Saint-Paul, Kerguelen Islands
    New Zealand: Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Campbell Islands (all disputed whether associated with Oceania or Antarctica)
    Norway: Bouvet Island
    South Africa: Prince Edward Islands (disputed whether associated with Africa or Antarctica)
    United Kingdom: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Antarctica
    A transcontinental state is a country whose contiguous continental territory or, (in the case of an island state, its different islands) lie in two (or more) different continents, or which has nearby outlying islands associated with a continent other than where it is based. Non-contiguous parts of countries are not considered (i.e. distant integral parts, extraterritorial possessions, dependencies and the like – examples include Bermuda, French Guiana, Greenland, and Hawaii,) although they may still be considered portions of transcontinental countries. This list includes the countries meeting that definition and presents tables showing the calculated area and population of each country on each continent.

    Methodology of calculation
    See "Europe and Asia" section of this article for more details about the geographical border between Europe and Asia.
    See also Geographic criteria for EU membership.
    Map colours: Geographical Europe is coloured green. The Asian territory of states that lie both in Europe and Asia are coloured light pink. Dark-pink are coloured states that lie entirely on the Asian continent, but are considered European because of cultural and historical reasons. Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan is also coloured dark-pink because it is not a continuous extension of Azerbaijan's territory. Statistics
    Countries are sorted according to percentage of European area. Sources: Turkey: Turkish Statistical Institute (land area) [3] Other countries: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [4] For methodologies of calculation see below.
    Countries are sorted according to percentage of European population. Sources: Turkey: Turkish Statistical Institute [5] Other countries: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [6] For methodologies of calculation see below.
    Azerbaijan - situated in both Western Asia and Eastern Europe.
    Georgia - situated in both Western Asia and Eastern Europe.
    Greece - situated in both Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. See top map.
    Kazakhstan - situated in both Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
    Russia - situated in both Northern Asia and Eastern Europe.
    South Ossetia (if its de facto independence from Georgia since the cease-fire of July 14, 1992 is recognized) - situated in both Western Asia and Eastern Europe.
    Turkey - situated in both Western Asia and Southeastern Europe. Countries in both Asia and Europe
    Mainland Greece and most of its islands are associated with Europe, but the Dodecanese Prefecture of the transcontinental South Aegean Periphery and most of the transcontinental North Aegean Periphery are associated with Asia. The intercontinental boundary mostly follows prefecture and periphery boundaries, but the numbers (particularly the population) in each continent of the North Aegean Periphery's transcontinental Lesbos Prefecture can only be approximated. The Lesbos Prefecture consists of the Asian Lesbos Island and the European Lemnos and Agios Efstratios islands. North Aegean's other two prefectures are entirely in Asia.

    Accuracy of area calculation: high-to-medium
    Accuracy of population calculation: medium Greece
    Russian regions' borders follow the Ural Mountains and Ural River closely enough. The deviations of the borders are such that if one mainly European region has a small part of its territory in Asia, then another mainly Asian region has a small part of its territory in Europe. Such cases are rare and nearly compensate one another, so for such a rough calculation we can claim high accuracy. There is also a very small area (less than 300 km²) of Russian territory south of the main Caucasus watershed in Asia. This is also a small deviation and it does not seriously affect the calculation accuracy.

    Accuracy of area calculation: high (but better is possible)
    Accuracy of population calculation: high (but better is possible) Russia
    The northeastern Azerbaijan district borders run mostly along the main Caucasus watershed. Five districts are entirely within Europe, and the transcontinental Khizi district is almost equally divided on the two sides of the watershed, so area calculation is easily made.

    Accuracy of area calculation: high (but better is possible)
    Accuracy of population calculation: high-to-medium Azerbaijan
    Georgia regions' borders don't follow the main Caucasus watershed (a newer map is needed that is showing South Ossetia correctly and not divided between other regions - mostly the former Tsinkvalli region.) Georgia's three transcontinental regions are Shida Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, and Kakheti. The Java district of Shida Kartli is transcontinental and the region's other four districts are entirely within Asia. The Kazbegi and Dusheti districts of Mtskheta-Mtianeti are transcontinental and the region's other three districts are entirely within Asia. The Akhmeta district of Kakheti is transcontinental and the region's other seven districts are entirely within Asia. The area is calculated by the rectangle method. The population is calculated using the inhabitants/km² of Azerbaijan's European territory (because it is in the same region and is somewhat accurate.)

    Accuracy of area calculation: low
    Accuracy of population calculation: low Georgia
    Kazakhstan's provincial borders don't follow the Ural River. Two of the provinces are transcontinental, Atyrau Province and West Kazakhstan Province. The capital of the former, Atyrau, is split by the mouth of the Ural and is a transcontinental city. Almost all of it is in Asia with a small portion in Europe. Two of Atyrau Province's districts are entirely in Europe, three of its districts are entirely in Asia, and its Inderskiy and Makhambetskiy districts are transcontinental. Five of West Kazakhstan's districts and the city of Oral are entirely in Europe, five of its districts are entirely in Asia, and its Akzhaikskiy district is transcontinental.

    Accuracy of area calculation: low
    Accuracy of population calculation: low Kazakhstan
    Three of Turkey's provinces are entirely in Europe while Çanakkale and Istanbul are transcontinental provinces. Three of Çanakkale's districts are entirely in Europe and its other nine districts are entirely in Asia. 19 of Istanbul's districts are entirely in Europe and its other 12 districts are entirely in Asia. The accuracy of both land area and population percentages is the highest possible.

    See Geography of Africa and Asia pages for more details about the geographical border between Africa and Asia.
    Countries are sorted according to percentage of African area. Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [7] For methodologies of calculation see below.
    Countries are sorted according to percentage of African population. Sources: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [8] Yemen: Also the MOPD-EU Socotra Development Masterplan [9] For methodologies of calculation see below.
    The border between the two continents is considered to go along the Isthmus of Suez and the Suez Canal. This border lies in Egypt, so it is considered both North African and Southwest Asian. The border continues through the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. International arbitration of the Hanish islands crisis in 1998 split control of the Hanish Islands in the Red Sea between Yemen and Eritrea along this border. Countries in both Asia and Africa
    Three of Egypt's governorates lie entirely in Asia and two are transcontinental. Ismailia Governorate is nearly equally divided by the Suez Canal and Suez Governorate, which is coterminous with the transcontinental city of Suez, has a small portion east of the Suez Canal.

    Accuracy of area calculation: high (but better is possible)
    Accuracy of population calculation: high-to-medium Egypt
    Although mainland Yemen is in the southern Arabian Peninsula and thus part of Asia, and its Hanish Islands and Perim in the Red Sea are associated with Asia, Yemen controls the archipelago of Socotra, which lies east of the horn of Somalia and is much closer to Africa than Asia. Socotra and the mainland city of Aden constitute the transcontinental 'Adan Governorate, so the Socotra archipelago constitutes a portion of a political subdivision that can only be approximated.

    Accuracy of area calculation: high (better is possible)
    Accuracy of population calculation: medium Yemen
    See Wallace Line and the Oceania and Asia pages for more details about the grouping of the islands between Oceania and Asia.
    A traditional geographical definition to determine which island should be included with Oceania and which with Asia is to use the Wallace line, although it is less favoured contemporarily and within Asia itself, where the zoogeographical boundary is less known.
    Although Australia controls the inhabited Asian Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, they are too far from the Australian continent to include in the charts below and consider the nation a transcontinental state.
    Countries are sorted according to percentage of Oceanian area. Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [11] For methodologies of calculation see below.
    Countries are sorted according to percentage of Oceanian population. Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [12] For methodologies of calculation see below.
    According to this definition some of the eastern Indonesian islands should be considered Oceanian. So Indonesia is both in Southeast Asia and in Oceania. However, it is common practice on maps to consider all of Indonesia, including Western New Guinea, as 'Asia'. Indonesia is highly sensitive to ideas of separatism in its eastern borders, and would not want to be considered a country divided by two continents with distinct social characteristics. It is also common practice to consider all of Indonesia outside of New Guinea as being Asian.
    According to this definition the whole of the state East Timor lies only in Oceania. Culturally it is also much closer to the Pacific people than to Asians (although much of the Malay Archipelago may show similar characteristics due to it being a transitional area between mainland Asia and the Pacific islands). East Timor is considered as a part of Asia primarily due to its past occupation by Indonesia, which is regarded mostly a Southeast Asian state. It is, however, an observer in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and is classified as Asian by the United Nations [10]. Countries in both Asia and Oceania
    Geographically and culturally, East Timor is entirely within Oceania, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

    East Timor
    Sulawesi, the Maluku Islands, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, the Sangir Islands, the Talaud Islands, and Western New Guinea lie entirely in Oceania, while Indonesia's other islands and island groups lie entirely in Asia, and none of its provinces crosses the Wallace Line, so the accuracy of both the area and population percentages is the highest possible.

    See North America and South America pages for more details about the geographical border between the two Americas.
    North American Caribbean islands belonging to South American countries:
    South American Caribbean islands:
    Extraterritorial part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Countries are sorted according to percentage of South American population. Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [15] For methodologies of calculation see below.
    Most geographic authorities delineate the land border dividing the Americas somewhere along the Isthmus of Panama. One common demarcation follows the Darien watershed along the Colombia-Panama boundary. Another common dividing line (and used herein) is the Panama Canal transecting the isthmus; thus, Panama is reckoned to have territory in both continents. Panama City, Panama's capital, sits on the Pacific (southern) coast near the Panama Canal in the eastern (South American) portion of the country. Panama lies almost entirely on the Caribbean Plate, with a small portion on the South American Plate. Geopolitically, all of Panama is often considered a part of North America alone and among the countries of North America.
    The sea islands division is more complicated. All Caribbean islands are often labeled as North American. The Dutch dependency Aruba, some parts of the Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire and Curaçao islands), and the state of Trinidad and Tobago lie on the continental shelf of South America, and are considered South American. Venezuela's Isla Aves and the Colombian islands of San Andrés and Providencia are geographically North American. Venezuela is not included in the charts below since Isla Aves only covers a small fraction of a km² and is uninhabited. Isla Aves is one of the Federal dependencies of Venezuela under the administration of the transcontinental city of Caracas. Countries in both North America and South America
    Geographically entirely in South America, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

    Geographically entirely in South America, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

    Trinidad and Tobago
    Mainland Colombia is in northwestern South America, but the nation also controls the San Andrés and Providencia archipelago, 400 miles WNW of Columbia's Caribbean coast, near the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua. This archipelago is coterminous with the department of the same name, but the population can only be approximated.

    Accuracy of area calculation: high-to-medium
    Accuracy of population calculation: medium Colombia
    Bonaire and Curaçao lie entirely in South America, while Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten lie entirely in North America, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

    Netherlands Antilles
    Three of the provinces lie entirely in South America. Panamá Province and Colón Province are both transcontinental, with Colón nearly equally divided between both Americas and Panamá unequally divided, with nearly a 1:4 ratio in South America's favor. The Pearl Islands and Taboga Island in the Gulf of Panama are part of Panamá Province and are associated with South America and North America, respectively. A map of the locations of the districts of these two provinces and their area and population numbers are needed.

    Accuracy of area calculation: medium
    Accuracy of population calculation: low Panama
    See "Africa and Europe" section of this article for more details about the geographical border between Africa and Europe.
    Countries are sorted according to percentage of European area. Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [16] For methodologies of calculation see below. Countries are sorted according to percentage of European population. Source: World Gazetteer, Statistics of administrative units, towns and cities [17] For methodologies of calculation see below.
    Countries in both Africa and Europe
    Although mainland Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, the Aegadian Islands, Ustica, and the Aeolian Islands are associated with Europe, the closest land to Pantelleria and the Pelagie Islands is Tunisia on the African mainland. They belong to the transcontinental Sicilian provinces of Trapani and Agrigento, respectively, and they are coterminous with the comuni of Pantelleria and Lampedusa e Linosa, respectively. They represent portions of political subdivisions that can only be approximated.

    Accuracy of area calculation: high (better is possible)
    Accuracy of population calculation: medium Italy
    The Portuguese mainland is in Europe, while the Azores archipelago (also associated with Europe) and the archipelago of Madeira (geographically part of Africa) in the Atlantic Ocean constitute the Autonomous regions of Portugal.

    Accuracy of area calculation: high
    Accuracy of population calculation: high Portugal
    Although its mainland is in Europe, Spain has holdings (the Canary Islands in the Atlantic and its Plazas de soberanía including Ceuta and Melilla on the African mainland) that are geographically part of Africa. They are considered Autonomous communities of Spain.

    Accuracy of area calculation: high
    Accuracy of population calculation: high Spain
    Geographically entirely in Africa, so the accuracy of both area and population percentages is the highest possible.

    List of transcontinental empires and countries in history

    List of countries by continent

Tuesday, February 26, 2008

Economies of scale characterizes a production process in which an increase in the scale of the firm causes a decrease in the long run average cost of each unit.
Economies of scale can be enjoyed by any size firm expanding its scale of operation. The common ones are purchasing (bulk buying of materials through long-term contracts), managerial (increasing the specialization of managers), financial (obtaining lower-interest charges when borrowing from banks and having access to a greater range of financial instruments), and marketing (spreading the cost of advertising over a greater range of output in media markets). Each of these factors reduces the long run average costs (LRAC) of production by shifting the short-run average total cost (SRATC) curve down and to the right.
This should not be confused with increasing returns to scale which is represented by the SRATC where simply increasing output within current capacity reduces the short run cost per unit.
This is, of course, an extremely simplistic example and, in real life, there are countering forces of diseconomies of scale. As these forces balance, an optimum production volume can be found (referred to as constant returns to scale).
This principle can be equally applied to an organization resulting in firms within a particular industry tending to be similar sizes. Economists have studied this effect as the theory of the firm.
A natural monopoly is often defined as a firm which enjoys economies of scale for all reasonable firm sizes; because it is always more efficient for one firm to expand than for new firms to be established, the natural monopoly has no competition. However, standard economic theory also holds that on account of the unique shapes of the natural monopoly's LRAC and SRAC, it can never experience economic profit and thus requires subsidies or other government intervention to remain profitable.
In the short run at least one factor of production is fixed. Therefore the SRAC curve will fall and then rise as diminishing returns sets in. In the long run however all factors of production vary and therefore the LRAC curve will fall and then rise according to economies and diseconomies of scale.
There are two typical ways to achieve economies of scale:

High fixed cost and constant marginal cost
Low or no fixed cost and declining marginal cost Economies of scale Examples
Economies of Scale - As a firm doubles output, the total cost of inputs less than doubles Diseconomies of Scale - As a firm doubles its output, the total cost of inputs more than doubles.Economies of scale

Monday, February 25, 2008

The Sullivan Expedition of 1779 passed through the area and fought a British force at the Battle of Newtown, south of the current city. The Iroquois and the new United States made a treaty at Elmira in 1791 to settle territorial disputes in the region.
The first settler in Elmira was captain Abraham Miller of the continental army. He built a cabin after resigning just before the Revolutionary war. Miller's pond and Miller Street are named after him where his house was originally built.

Early history
The New York legislature established the Township of Chemung, now Chemung County, in 1788. The settlement of Newtown was soon established at the intersection of Newtown Creek and the Chemung River. In 1792, the settlement at Newtown joined with the Wisnerburg and DeWittsburg settlements to form the village of Newtown. In 1808, the village officially changed its name to the Town of Elmira, at a town meeting held at Teal's Tavern. It's said the town was named after tavern owner Nathan Teal's young daughter, but that story has never been confirmed. In any case, the City of Elmira, also called "The Queen City", was incorporated in 1864 from part of the town of Elmira and the village of Elmira. The remaining part of the town of Elmira exists still, surrounding the city on the west, north, and east. The city and town share an intricately entwined history. According to Amos B. Carpenter's Family History book printed in 1898, Elmira is named after Major General Matthew Carpenter's daughter. This occurred according to the book in 1821 at the constitutional convention which Matthew was a delegate to.
Elmira served as a transportation hub for New York's Southern Tier in the 1800s, connecting commercial centers in Rochester and Buffalo with Albany and New York City, via the canal system and railroads. The city was the southern terminus of the Chemung Canal (completed in 1833); later, the Junction Canal was constructed to connect Elmira with Corning, facilitating transport of coal from the Pennsylvania mines via the Northern branch of the Susquehanna Canal system. Some years after, the Erie and New York Railroads were completed and criss-crossed in the midst of the city, making it a prime location for an Army training and muster point early in the Civil War.
A great deal of the 30 acre Union installation, known as Camp Rathbun, fell into disuse as the Civil War progressed, and the camp's "Barracks #3" were converted into a Civil War prison camp in the summer of 1864. The camp, in use from June 6, 1864 until the fall of 1865, was dubbed "Hellmira" by its inmates. Towner's history of 1892 and maps from the period indicate the camp occupied a somewhat irregular parallelogram, running about 1,000 feet (300 m) west and approximately the same distance south of a location a couple of hundred feet west of Hoffman Street (Foster Avenue?) and Winsor Avenue, bordered on the south by Foster's Pond more or less, on the north bank of the Chemung River.
In the months the site was used as a camp, 12,123 Confederate soldiers were incarcerated; of these, 2,963 died during their stay from a combination of malnutrition, prolonged exposure to brutal winter weather, and disease directly attributable to the dismal sanitary conditions on Foster's Pond and lack of medical care. The camp's dead were prepared for burial and laid to rest by the sexton at Woodlawn National Cemetery, ex-slave John W. Jones. At the end of the war, each prisoner was given a loyalty oath and given a train ticket back home; the last prisoner left the camp on September 27, 1865. The camp was closed, demolished and converted to farm land. Woodlawn cemetery, about 2 miles (3 km) north of the original prison camp site (bounded by West Hill, Bancroft, Davis, and Mary Streets), was designated a National Cemetery in 1877. The prison camp site is today both a residential area and few of the city's residents are aware that the prison camp ever existed.
As Elmira grew, so did the citizens' concern about increased crime after the end of the war; the idea of constructing a reformatory within the city had been discussed for some years. Finally, lands on which the present-day Elmira Correctional Facility resides, approximately 280 acres (1.1 km²) in all (north of Bancroft across the street from Woodlawn Cemetery), were purchased in 1869 and 1870 by the state legislature, specifically for construction of the reformatory and an armory. These lay within the boundaries of the town of Elmira, rather than the city. Around the same time, Dr. Eldwin Eldridge purchased a large tract of wilderness (~ 100 acres (0.4 km²)) with a small pond, also within the township, and developed it into a fabulous garden spot. His sudden death in 1876 put paid to his plans to develop the land further. After his death, Dr. Eldridge's estate granted access to the parkland to Elmira residents and tourists. In 1889, the city purchased the land, calling it Eldridge Park in the doctor's honor. The park this time held a nearly 15 acre lake in its center, along with marble statuary, flower gardens, fountains, driving and walking paths, and a labyrinth. In 1890, along with Eldridge park, the Reformatory, and Armory, the city added a well-populated area known as "Carr's Corners" (area bounded by Hoffman, West Hill, and Hillcrest (old Carr Road) - and appears to include the residential area around and to the south of Woodlawn National Cemetery.

Elmira, New York Elmira's formation
Elmira played a role in the escape of slaves to Canada on the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad operated at its peak from 1830-1865 and served as an avenue of escape for many fugitive slaves hoping to find freedom in the northern United States or in Canada. Along the Underground Railroad route stood "stations," or safe-havens for the runaway slaves, which were run by "conductors", people who helped the escaped slaves to freedom.
The "Fugitive Slave Act" of 1850 further strengthened the Underground Railroad because the act "violated the inherent rights of human beings to be free," according to Rochester Historian Arch Merrill in a June 26, 1964 article in the Star-Gazette.
One of the best routes on the Underground Railroad wound from Washington D.C., through Pennsylvania's Harrisburg, Williamsport, Canton, and Alba, to New York's Elmira and Canandaigua, followed by Rochester or other stations that connected to Canada.
According to a July 16, 1986 article in the Niagara Gazette, Elmira became a growing transportation center in the mid-19th century as railroads came into the city and use of the Chemung Canal increased ... increasing population brought money and created a more intellectual atmosphere ...
New railroad routes contributed to Elmira's popularity in the Underground Railroad. Geography and transportation routes added to Elmira's appeal for the Underground Railroad. Elmira is at the center of several river valleys, which have always been the basis for transportation routes. With the construction of the Chemung Canal between the Chemung River and Seneca Lake in 1833 and the completion of railroad lines in 1850, Elmira had major connections with much of New York and Pennsylvania. The same valleys that attracted railroad and canal construction also attracted slaves running towards freedom because they were the easiest and fastest route to travel.
Elmira's illustrious John W. Jones served as one of the area's most successful and most used conductors. In all, he found shelter for more than 800 escaped slaves - many in his own home behind Elmira's First Baptist Church. Jones often received fugitives in parties of six to 10, but at times he assisted 30 men, women, and children at once.
Elmira was the only regular agency between Philadelphia and Canada. Some fugitives passed from Elmira through Ithaca and Trumansburg to Lake Ontario. Others made the trip through Hornell to the Niagara. Towanda, Big Flats, Burdett, and Spencer were other Underground stations.
When the railway from Williamsport to Elmira was completed in 1854, Jones received many more fugitives by train, whom he shipped away in the 4 o'clock "Freedom Baggage Car." The railroad employees were friendly to the cause and placed them in the baggage cars for transport without charge through Watkins Glen and Canandaigua to Canada.
Jervis Langdon, Elmira merchant, and supporter of the underground railroad. According to papers left by Jones, the fugitives were often penniless when they arrived, and money had to be obtained to send them on their way. A few loyal men, including Jervis Langdon, James M. Robinson, William Yates, and Riggs Watrous, responded to frequent calls for contributions to replenish empty purses.
Elmira merchant, Jervis Langdon spent much of his money on social causes, particularly aiding runaway slaves, but there is no evidence he was a conductor, said Herbert Wisbey, retired history professor and first director of the Center of Mark Twain studies at Elmira College.
"He would be there with the purse to help out," Wisbey said. "Langdon could have been much wealthier in his later years, but he gave out much of his money, often anonymously."
It was also noted in Jones' papers that Riggs Watrous assisted in hiding fugitives. "Upon delivery in Elmira, Riggs Watrous would hide the slaves in the upper chambers of his house which was the first residence at Lake Street north of Market Street."
Because of Langdon's role and others close to him, Elmira was considered a safe location for the fugitive slaves. Many of the fugitives who arrived in Elmira liked the area so much they decided to stay instead of continuing the journey toward the Canadian border.

The Underground Railroad in Elmira
In 1950, the population of the City of Elmira peaked at about 50,000, which represented 57 percent of Chemung County's total population at that time. Today, the City has just 30,000 residents, which represents 34 percent of Chemung County's total population. This population decline is due to the National decline in Railroads and manufacturing.
Today, the primary manufacturing employers are:
The Hilliard Corporation is an Elmira manufacturer that makes over 16,000 different specialized one-of-a-kind products for businesses all over the world.
Kennedy Valve, a division of McWane Corporation, manufactures valves and fire hydrants at its plant on East Water Street in Elmira.
Eastern Metal, USA Sign, and the Sign Man manufactures interior and exterior signs, including the City of Elmira historical entrance sign, erected on E. Church Street in 2004.
Creative Orthotics and Prosthetics custom designs and manufactures orthotic and prosthetic devices for individuals.
Spanish manufacturer, CAF, calls Elmira Heights its headquarters for operations in North America where it constructs rail cars for the transit systems of the cities of Pittsburgh and Sacramento.
Vulcraft, a division of NuCor, manufactures steel joists, joist girders, steel floors, and roof decks at the new plant in the Town of Chemung.
Hardinge Incorporated is an international company with corporate headquarters located in Horseheads. Hardinge is a world-renowned and respected manufacturer of precision machine tools.
Schweizer Aircraft in nearby Big Flats manufactures helicopters, surveillance aircraft, and aviation parts. Schweizer is a contractor for the federal government, constructing unmanned helicopters for the military.
Also in Big Flats, Corning Life Sciences manufactures laboratory glassware, IST creates nuclear instrumentation and radiation tolerant cameras, and Orthstar is a software engineering company that creates software to automate and simulate systems

Elmira Economy
On June 22-23, 1972, Elmira recorded the worst flood in its history. There was no loss of life in The Flood of '72; however, there was an estimated $291.2 million in damage to the city. The cause of the flood was Tropical Storm Agnes, which was apparently headed out to sea when it changed its course. The storm stalled over northern Pennsylvania and southwest New York. The Flood of '72 waters rose at least three feet higher than the flood of May 28, 1946
About 15,000 people were driven from their homes, as the streets were flooded and the water rose to dangerous heights. Automobiles by the hundreds were ruined by the immense floodwaters. By Thursday night at 11pm, the Chemung River had risen to 17 feet (5 m) above normal at the Lake Street Bridge. Elmira became a city divided, as all of the bridges were unusable at the peak of the disaster. The City suffered a power outage and communications were knocked out all over town. "We're like a lost nation over here," remarked one of the Southport firemen during the intensity of the flood.
The remains of the Walnut Street Bridge At its peak, the flood carried away the southern spans of the Walnut Street Bridge, built back in 1896. The Main Street Bridge was damaged, but later opened for emergency traffic. There was devastating damage to Falck Street, after the former Harris, McHenry & Baker lumber company was swept away by the current. Porches and garages were ripped loose, and siding was torn from the houses by a destructive riptide.
The massive floodwaters stretched out from Water Street to Wall Street. On Hoffman Street, the water reached past First Street and Walnut Street. Elmira College and the Elmira City Schools were set up as survival centers for flood refugees. The flood knocked out important utilities such as water, power, and telephone. The Walnut Street bridge was washed away. Citizens were advised to boil all water before drinking it. Helicopters were evacuating people from hazardous properties in Big Flats, Wellsburg and Katydid Curve. In nearby Big Flats, nearly half a million gallons of furnace oil, kerosene and gasoline spilled from two cracked Sun Oil Company tanks and spread East. Crews from three oil companies worked to recover most of the spill.
Downtown was completely submerged. Elmira's City Hall escaped flooding, with the water only covering the third step of the entrance to the building. All of the churches downtown were damaged, so congregations met at churches outside of the flood zone, such as the First Presbyterian and the Southside Baptist Church. Marine Midland Bank took 66 inches of water and Chemung Canal Trust Company had 71 inches of floodwater in its lobby. The safe deposit boxes and the vault were flooded in their deep basement. Trayer Products on Madison Avenue flooded and its heat-treating facility also burned to the water line before firemen could reach it. At St. Joseph's Hospital, the ground floor took 9 feet (3 m), 1 inch of water and the damage was estimated at over $8 million.
Water flowed down streets On June 23, President Nixon declared Chemung County and 13 other New York State counties disaster areas. Chemung County received generous help from the National Guard, the Army, the American Red Cross, the Salvation Army and several private businesses who donated food, clothing, and money. Hardinge Brothers Foundation Inc. announced a grant of $300,000 to help the flood victims restore their homes. President Nixon called The Flood of '72 the greatest natural disaster in the nation's history. Federal and state funds came in by the millions, as the extent of the destruction was still unknown. Stanley J. Roth, the Executive Director of the Urban Renewal, estimated the flood affected 45% of Elmira.
In hundreds of homes, the flooding ruined furnaces, washing machines, water heaters, walls, bedding and carpets. Retail stores had heavy losses in ruined merchandise, broken windows and warped floors. The records of industry were turned into a brown pulp. Schools lost boThe Southside suffers from the wrath of the Chemung Riveroks, furnishings, and gym floors. Government units faced costly repaving projects as well as restoration of grounds and buildings. It took more than a month for many of the city's structures to dry out.
John Nickerson wrote and recorded the song "It Sprinkled, It Rained, and It Poured" about the Flood of 1972. Tedd Arnold wrote a Young Adult Fiction book based upon the Flood of 1972 called "Rat Life".

Flood of '72

Mark Twain
Olivia Langdon Clemens
Ernie Davis
John W. Jones
Jane Roberts
Henry Friendly
Eileen Collins
Brian Williams
Hal Roach
Tommy Hilfiger
Jeanine Pirro
Frederick Collin
John Arnot, Jr.
Charles Tomlinson Griffes
Charles Thomas McMillen
William P. Perry
Tedd Arnold Notable people with ties to Elmira
Elmira is located at 42°5′23″N, 76°48′34″W (42.089874, -76.809559).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.6 km² (7.6 mi²). 19.0 km² (7.3 mi²) of it is land and 0.7 km² (0.3 mi²) of it (3.56%) is water.
The Chemung River flows eastward through the city. Elmira is built almost entirely in the flood plain of the Chemung River and has suffered many floods over its history, the worst from Hurricane Agnes in 1972. Newtown Creek, flowing from the north, joins the Chemung River at the southeast corner of the city.
New York State Route 17, The Southern Tier Expressway, connects with the city at Exit 56. New York State Route 14 passes through Elmira between Watkins Glen and Pennsylvania. New York State Route 352 begins in Elmira at Exit 56 of the Southern Tier Expressway and continues West into Corning.

As of the census of 2000, there were 30,940 people, 11,475 households, and 6,701 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,632.0/km² (4,229.5/mi²). There were 12,895 housing units at an average density of 680.2/km² (1,762.7/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 82.03% White or European American, 13.05% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.37% from other races, and 2.64% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.14% of the population.
There were 11,475 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.3% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.6% were non-families. 34.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.05.
In the city the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 13.0% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 101.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $27,292, and the median income for a family was $33,592. Males had a median income of $31,775 versus $22,350 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,495. About 17.9% of families and 23.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.6% of those under age 18 and 12.1% of those age 65 or over.
The Elmira Metropolitan Statistical Area (or Elmira MSA) is frequently used for statistical information such as labor rates and includes all of Chemung County with a population in 2000 of 90,070.
The Elmira MSA was ranked as the 59th safest place to live out of 344 Metro Areas in 2005 by Morgan Quitno Press [1].

The city government is a Council-Manager form of government in which the City Manager is the primary administrator of the City. There is one mayor elected at large and six councilmembers elected from each of six council districts. The term of office of the mayor and councilmembers was 2 years until a referendum passed in 2003 extended the terms to 4 years (4 year terms will begin after the 2007 election). The mayor and councilmembers are all part-time employees. The City Manager, City Clerk, City Chamberlain, City Assessor, and Corporation Counsel are all appointed by the City Council. All remaining department heads serve at the request of the City Manager.
The city has 125 miles (201 km) of road, 210 miles (340 km) of water lines, and 175 miles (282 km) of sewer lines. There are four ZIP codes in the City of Elmira: 14901 (northside), 14902 (downtown), 14904 (southside), and 14905 (West Elmira).

City government

The city police department employs approximately 81 full-time officers.
The city fire department employs approximately 60 full-time firefighters and officers.
The city animal shelter has a goal to become by 2007 a no-kill animal shelter based on a model by Tompkins County SPCA..
The city received $1.4 million in Community Development Block Grant funds and $368,000 in HOME funds in FY2006-2007 from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. These funds are used for programs and projects for low-moderate income families and neighbohood blocks.
The City of Elmira has more than 20 parks including Eldridge Park with a walking trail, restored carousel, skateboard park, and fishing lake and Wisner Park with memorials to veterans from World War I, World War II, the Vietnam War and the Fallen Officers Memorial.
The City Manager of the City of Elmira is currently [3]John J. Burin.
The Chief of Police is currently [4]W. Scott Drake III. Facts about City Government
The City Slogan is "Honoring the Past, Building the Future". It is featured on an Entrance sign into the City from Exit 56 of the Southern Tier Expressway along with other honored Elmirans including (L to R) Brian Williams, Hal Roach, Ernie Davis, Mark Twain, Eileen Collins, John Jones, and Tommy Hilfiger. The sign was erected in 2003 by The Sign Man and designed by the City of Elmira Webmaster, Joshua Miller. The slogan was designated by Mayor Stephen Hughes following the conclusion of a slogan contest in which Marlin Stewart, Alan and Barbara Hutchinson, and James Lloyd were recognized for their contributions to the winning slogan.
On at least two hilltops near the city (mostly on Harris Hill to the northwest) pioneer pilots established the sport of gliding in America. Harris Hill is the site of the National Soaring Museum.

The last Labrador Duck was seen at Elmira on December 12, 1878.
The Elmira-Corning Regional Airport is located about 10 miles (20 km) outside of the City in the Town of Big Flats.
The Chemung County Chamber of Commerce has represented business and Industry in Elmira in such diverse areas as local, State and Federal legislation, small business concerns, tourism promotion and economic development.
Elmira Free Academy has graduated many notable Elmirans such as Eileen Collins, Tommy Hilfiger, and Ernie Davis.
Dunn Field is a baseball stadium located along the banks of the Chemung River on the southside. The Elmira Pioneers play at Dunn Field. Other famous players that have played or managed at Dunn Field include Babe Ruth, Earl Weaver, Don Zimmer, Wade Boggs, and Curt Schilling.
Elmira College is located in the city.
The First Arena was built in Elmira in 2000 (originally opened as the Coach USA Center). It serves as the home of the Elmira Jackals ECHL Franchise.
The Arnot-Ogden Medical Center and St. Joseph's Hospital are located in the city.
The Elmira Psychiatric Center is located in the city. In 2003, Governor George Pataki proposed closing this facility in the budget, but the community rallied together and protested the effect that the closing would have on the region. The State Legislature vetoed the Governor's closure and the EPC remains open. It serves hundreds of individuals on both an outpatient and inpatient basis.
The Elmira Correctional Facility is located on the city's Northwest side. The Southport Correctional Facility is located about 2 miles (3 km) outside the city's southern border. Joseph 'Joe Cargo'Valachi, the former Mafia member that first publically acknowledged that the Italian Mafia existed, revealed in the "Valachi Papers" by Peter Maas they he spent some time at the Elmira Correctional Facility (formerly the Elmira Reformatory).
The Arnot Art Museum is located in the downtown Civic-Historic District.
The recently restored Eldridge Park Carousel began operation in May of 2006 and is the fastest carousel in the world, spinning at nearly 18 miles per hour. [5]
Woodlawn Cemetery and Woodlawn National Cemetery are both located in the City of Elmira in the Northwest sector. More information about the City of Elmira


Star-Gazette[6], daily morning newspaper owned by Gannett Co. Inc. It was Gannett's first newspaper.
Chemung Valley Reporter, weekly newspaper based in nearby Horseheads Television

WLVY [12]
WNKI [13]
WPIE (studio in Elmira, tower in Trumansburg)