Wednesday, January 30, 2008

West Flanders (Dutch: West-Vlaanderen) is the westernmost province of the Flemish Region, also named Flanders, in Belgium. It borders (clockwise from the North) on the Netherlands, the Flemish province of East Flanders (Oost-Vlaanderen) and the Walloon province of Hainaut (Henegouwen) in Belgium, on France, and the North Sea. Its capital is Bruges (Brugge). It has an area of 3,125 km² which is divided into eight administrative districts (arrondissementen) containing 64 municipalities.
The whole Belgian North Sea coast, an important tourism destination, lies in West Flanders. A tram line runs the length of the coast, from De Panne on the French border, via the port of Ostend (Oostende), to Knokke-Heist on the Dutch frontier.

West Flanders Arrondissements
Municipalities that have city status have a (city) behind their name.
1. Alveringem 2. Anzegem 3. Ardooie 4. Avelgem 5. Beernem 6. Blankenberge (city) 7. Bredene 8. Bruges (city) 9. Damme (city) 10. De Haan 11. De Panne 12. Deerlijk 13. Dentergem 14. Diksmuide (city) 15. Gistel (city) 16. Harelbeke (city) 17. Heuvelland 18. Hooglede 19. Houthulst 20. Ichtegem 21. Ypres (Ieper) (city) 22. Ingelmunster 23. Izegem (city) 24. Jabbeke 25. Knokke-Heist 26. Koekelare 27. Koksijde 28. Kortemark 29. Kortrijk (city) 30. Kuurne 31. Langemark-Poelkapelle 32. Ledegem 33. Lendelede 34. Lichtervelde 35. Lo-Reninge (city) 36. Menen (city) 37. Mesen (city) 38. Meulebeke 39. Middelkerke 40. Moorslede 41. Nieuwpoort (city) 42. Ostend (city) 43. Oostkamp 44. Oostrozebeke 45. Oudenburg (city) 46. Pittem 47. Poperinge (city) 48. Roeselare (city) 49. Ruiselede 50. Spiere-Helkijn 51. Staden 52. Tielt (city) 53. Torhout (city) 54. Veurne (city) 55. Vleteren 56. Waregem (city) 57. Wervik (city) 58. Wevelgem 59. Wielsbeke 60. Wingene 61. Zedelgem 62. Zonnebeke 63. Zuienkerke 64. Zwevegem

Tuesday, January 29, 2008

House Committee on Un-American ActivitiesHouse Committee on Un-American Activities
House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. It is often referred to as the House Un-American Activities Committee. In 1969, the House changed the committee's name to the Committee on Internal Security. When the House abolished the committee in 1975, its functions were transferred to the House Judiciary Committee.
The committee's anti-communist investigations are often confused with those of Senator Joseph McCarthy. McCarthy, as a senator, had no direct involvement with this House committee.

McCormack-Dickstein (1934)
The House Committee on Un-American Activities grew from a special investigating committee established in May 1938, chaired by Martin Dies and co-chaired by Samuel Dickstein, himself named in Soviet NKVD documents as a Soviet agent. In pre-war years and during World War II, it was known as the Dies Committee. Its work was supposed to be aimed mostly at German American involvement in Nazi and Ku Klux Klan activity. As to investigations into the activities of the "Klan," the Committee actually did little. When HUAC's chief counsel Ernest Adamson announced that "The committee has decided that it lacks sufficient data on which to base a probe," committee member John E. Rankin added: "After all, the KKK is an old American institution." Instead of the Klan, HUAC concentrated on investigating the possibility that the American Communist Party had infiltrated the Works Progress Administration, including the Federal Theatre Project.
The Dies Committee also carried out a brief investigation into the wartime internment of Japanese Americans living on the West Coast. The investigation primarily concerned security at the camps, youth gangs allegedly operating in the camps, food supply questions, and releases of internees. With the exception of Rep. Herman Eberharter, the members of the committee seemed to support internment.
In 1938, Hallie Flanagan, the head of the Federal Theatre Project, was subpoenaed to appear before the committee to answer the charge that the project was overrun with communists. Flanagan was called to testify for only a part of one day, while a clerk from the project was called in for two entire days. It was during this investigation that one of the committee members famously asked Flanagan whether the Elizabethan playwright Christopher Marlowe was a member of the Communist Party.
In 1939, the committee investigated leaders of the American Youth Congress, a Comintern affiliate organization.

Dies Committee (1938–1944)
HUAC became a standing (permanent) committee in 1946. Under the mandate of Public Law 601, passed by the 79th Congress, the committee of nine representatives investigated suspected threats of subversion or propaganda that attacked "the form of government guaranteed by our Constitution."
Under this mandate, the committee focused its investigations on real and suspected Communists in positions of actual or supposed influence in American society. The first such investigation looked into allegations of Communists in the Federal Theatre Project in 1938. A significant step for HUAC was its investigation of the charges of espionage brought against Alger Hiss in 1948. This investigation ultimately resulted in Hiss's trial and conviction for perjury, and convinced many of the usefulness of congressional committees for uncovering Communist subversion.


Main article: Hollywood blacklist Hollywood blacklist
HUAC lost considerable prestige after it subpoenaed Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman of the Yippies in 1967, and again in the aftermath of the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Unlike previous subjects of the committee's investigations, the Yippies neither respected nor feared the committee, and used media attention to make a mockery of the proceedings. Rubin came to one session dressed as an American Revolutionary War soldier, and passed out copies of the United States Declaration of Independence to people in attendance. Then Rubin "blew giant gum bubbles while his co-witnesses taunted the committee with Nazi salutes."
According to the Harvard Crimson:


Martin Dies Jr., chair 1938–1944
John Parnell Thomas, chair 1947–1948
John Stephens Wood, chair 1949–1953
Harold Himmel Velde, chair 1953–1955
Francis Walter, chair 1955–1965
Edwin Edward Willis, chair 1965–1969
Richard Howard Ichord Jr., chair 1969–1975
Richard Nixon
Gordon H. Scherer
Karl Earl Mundt
Felix Edward Hébert
John Elliott Rankin
Samuel Dickstein
Richard B. Vail Committee chairs and notable members

California Senate Factfinding Subcommittee on Un-American Activities
Waldorf Statement
Hollywood blacklist
J. Edgar Hoover
Zero Mostel (includes a segment of a HUAC hearing)
Loyalty oath
Philip Dunne
Ayn Rand
Hans Zeisel
Walt Disney
National Emergency Civil Liberties Committee

Monday, January 28, 2008

In type design and typography, the word Hamburgefonts (alternatively styled HAMBURGEFONTS or hamburgefonts) is a sequence of letters used to sample a typeface. It contains the letters typically designed first when designing a typeface, chosen because they include many of the shapes and strokes required to build up the complete alphabet. It is not a word in the traditional sense; it has no meaning, but is rather a construction of the typography industry.

Saturday, January 26, 2008

Republic of China (on Taiwan)
The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: 春秋時代; pinyin: Chūnqiū Shídài) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century BC). Its name comes from the Spring and Autumn Annals, a chronicle of the state of Lu between 722 BC and 481 BC, which tradition associates with Confucius.
During the Springs and Autumns, China was ruled by a feudal system. The Zhou dynasty kings held nominal power over a small Royal Domain, centered on their capital (modern Luoyang), and granted fiefdoms over the rest of China to several hundreds of hereditary nobles (Zhuhou 诸侯), descendants of members of the Zhou clan, close associates of the founders of the dynasty, or local potentates. The most important feudal princes (known later as the twelve princes, 十二诸侯) met during regular conferences, where important matters, such as military expeditions against foreign groups or offending nobles were decided. During these conferences, one prince was sometimes declared hegemon (伯 and then 霸), and took the leadership over the armies of all feudal states.
As the era unfolded, larger states annexed or claim suzerainty over smaller ones. By the 6th century BC, most small states had disappeared, and a few large and powerful principalities dominated China. Some southern states, such as Chu and Wu, claimed independence from the Zhou. Wars were undertaken to oppose some of these states (Wu and Yue). In the state of Jin, six powerful families fought for supremacy, and a series of civil wars resulted in the splitting of Jin into three smaller states by the beginning of the fifth century.
At that time, the control Zhou kings exerted over feudal princes was greatly reduced, the feudal system crumbled, and the Warring States Period began.

Spring and Autumn Period Beginning of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty
The first nobility to help the Zhou kings was the Duke Zhuang of Zheng (郑庄公) (r. 743 BC-701 BC). He was the first to establish the hegemonical system (bà 霸), which was intended to retain the old proto-feudal system. Traditional historians justified the new system as a means of protecting weaker civilized states and the Zhou royalty from the intruding "barbarian" tribes. Located in the south, north, east and west, the barbarian tribes were, respectively, the Man, Yi, Rong and Di.
The newly powerful states were more eager to maintain aristocratic privileges over the traditional ideology of supporting the weak ruling entity during times of unrest (匡扶社稷 kuāng fú shè jì), which had been widely propagated during imperial China to consolidate power into the ruling family.
Dukes Huan of Qi (r. 685 BC-643 BC) and Wen of Jin (r. 636 BC-628 BC) made further steps in installing the overlordship system, which brought relative stability, but in shorter time periods than before. Annexations increased, favoring the several most powerful states, including Qin, Jin, Qi and Chu. The overlord role gradually drifted from its stated intention of protecting weaker states; the overlordship eventually became a system of hegemony of major states over weaker satellites of Chinese and "barbarian" origin.
The great states used the pretext of aid and protection to intervene and gain advantages over the smaller states during their internal quarrels. Later overlords were mostly derived from these great states. They proclaimed themselves master of their territories, without even recognizing the petty figurehead of Zhou. Establishment of the local administration system (Jun and Xian), with its officials appointed by the government, gave states better control over the dominion. Taxation facilitated commerce and agriculture more than proto-feudalism.
The three states of Qin, Jin and Qi not only optimized their own strength, but also repelled the southern state of Chu, whose rulers had proclaimed themselves kings. The Chu armies gradually intruded into the Yellow River Basin. Framing Chu as the "southern barbarian", Chu Man, was merely a pretext to warn Chu not to intervene into their respective spheres of influence. Chu intrusion was checked several times in three major battles with increasing violence - the Battle of Chengpu, the Battle of Bi and the Battle of Yanling; this resulted in the restorations of the states of Chen and Cai.

Rise of the hegemonies
See main article: Interstate relations during the Spring and Autumn period.
During the period a complex system of interstate relations developed. It was partially structured upon the Western Zhou system of feudalism, but elements of realpolitik were emerging. A collection of interstate customary norms and values, which can perhaps be loosely termed international law, was also evident. As the operational and cultural areas of states expanded and intersected, diplomatic encounters increased.

Changing tempo of war
Traditionally, the Five Overlords of Spring and Autumn Period (春秋五霸 Chūn Qiū Wǔ Bà) include:
While some other historians suggest that the Five Overlords include:

Duke Huan of Qi (齐桓公)
Duke Wen of Jin (晋文公)
King Zhuang of Chu (楚莊王)
Duke Mu of Qin (秦穆公)
Duke Xiang of Song (宋襄公)
Duke Huan of Qi (齐桓公)
Duke Wen of Jin (晋文公)
King Zhuang of Chu (楚庄王)
King Fu Chai of Wu (吴王夫差)
King Gou Jian of Yue (越王勾踐) List of prominent states
Bureaucrats or Officers
Guan Zhong (管仲), statesman and advisor of Duke Huan of Qi and regarded by some modern scholars as the first Legalist.
Baili Xi (百里奚), famous prime minister of Qin.
Bo Pi, (伯噽)the corrupted bureaucrat under King He Lu and played important diplomatic role of Wu-Yue relations.
Wen Zhong文種 and Fan Li范蠡, the two advisors and partisans of King Gou Jian of his rally against Wu.
Zi Chan, (子产)leader of self-strengthening movements in Zheng
Influential scholars
Confucius(孔子), leading figure in Confucianism
Laozi (老子)or Lao tse, founder of Daoism
Mozi, known as Motse (墨子 Mò Zǐ) or "Mocius" (also "Micius") to Western scholars, founder of Mohism
Confucius(孔子), the editor of Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋)
Lu Ban(鲁班)
Ou Ye Zi, literally means Ou the wielder and mentor of the couple Gan Jiang and Mo Ye
Entrepreneurs and Commercial personnel
Fan Li
Generals, military leaders and authors
Rang Ju, elder contemporary and possibly mentor of
Sun Tzu, (孙子)the author of The Art of War
Yao Li, (要离)sent by He Lu to kill Qing Ji(庆忌).
Zhuan Zhu,(专渚) sent by He Lu to kill his cousin King Liao
Mo Xie
See also: Hundred Schools of Thought

Friday, January 25, 2008

WQEW (1560 kHz) is a Radio Disney affiliate licensed to New York City. Its transmitter is located in Maspeth, Queens. WQEW has a transmitter power of 50,000 watts and is listed as a Clear channel station. On some nights, WQEW can be picked up loud and clear as far out as Cleveland, Ohio, where it out performs WWMK AM 1260 in its distance areas.

WQEW History
Each Radio Disney station has different and unique legal Id's for identifying itself. Extendend Id's very from market to market and usually last about 8 seconds.

The mouse is in the house, AM 1560, Radio Disney.
New York is all ears, AM 1560, Radio Disney.
The station just for New York, AM 1560 Radio Disney.
The station cooked up for New York, AM 1560, Radio Disney.
Hey New York, the mouse is in the house, AM 1560 Radio Disney.
It's a party everyday, New York, AM 1560, Radio Disney.

Thursday, January 24, 2008

Hundred (country subdivision)
A hundred is a geographic division used in England, Denmark, South Australia and some parts of the USA, Germany, Sweden (and today's Finland) and Norway, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller administrative units. Alternative names include wapentake, Herred (Danish, Norwegian), Härad (Swedish) and Kihlakunta (Finnish)
The name is derived from the number one hundred and it may in some areas once have referred to a hundred men under arms—in England, specifically, it has been suggested that it referred to the amount of land sufficient to sustain one hundred families defined as the land covered by one hundred "hides", the smallest land unit defined by the Anglo-Saxons for taxation purposes.
It was a traditional Germanic system described as early as AD 98 by Tacitus (the centeni). Similar systems were used in the traditional administrative regimes of China and Japan.

Other terms
The term hundare (hundred) was used in Svealand (the core region of early Sweden) and present-day Finland. Eventually that division was superseded by introducing the härad, which was the name in the rest of Scandinavia (also Herred). This word was either derived from Proto-Germanic *harja-raiðō (warband) or Proto-Norse *harja-raiða (war equipment, cf. Wapentake)[3].
Hundreds were not organized in Norrland, the northern sparsely populated part of Sweden-Finland.
It is not entirely clear when hundreds were organised in the western part of Finland. The name of the province of Satakunta, roughly meaning hundred, hints at influences from the times before the Northern Crusades, Christianization, and incorporation into Sweden.

United States

Main article: Cadastral divisions of Australia

Wednesday, January 23, 2008

Interactionism (sometimes known as interpretivism) is a generic sociological paradigm that brings under its umbrella a number of subperspectives:
Interactionism has become one of the dominant sociological perspectives in the world today. It is theory based on social interaction, hence the name given to the theory itself. It links to the sociological views of the German theorist Max Weber. It promotes the idea that nothing in society is determined, and that people can break free of a label as individuals. This is sociology on the micro-level Critics would say that it is merely a mild form of Postmodernist theory, however it has in recent times incorporated Marxism and New Right theory .
Interactionist theory has grown in the latter half of the twentieth century, having its roots in America. It can be noted how close the ideas do link to the concept of the American dream, with the individual having the power to change society and indeed history from below, rather than being manipulated from above. Therefore in the world of sociology, it is a theory which studies individuals and how they act within society.
George Herbert Mead, as an advocate of pragmatism and the subjectivity of social reality, is considered a leader in the development of interactionism. Herbert Blumer expanded on Mead's work and coined the term "Symbolic interactionism".
In the philosophy of mind, the position labeled interactionism is a form of property dualism, which in turn is a form of emergent materialism.

Symbolic interactionism
Social constructionism Interactionist methodology
Interactionists reject the approach of gathering statistical (quantitative) data, a method preferred by structuralists. These methods include; experiments, structured interviews, questionnaires, non-participant observation and secondary sources. They have a few basic criticisms, namely:

Statistical data is not "valid". This is to say that these methods don't provide us with a true picture of society on the topic being researched.
Research is biassed and therefore not objective. Whilst the sociologist would be distant, it is argued that a hypothesis means the research is biased towards a pre-set conclusion.
Information gathered is a "snapshot" of society. With questionnaires, surveys or structured interviews can only give a picture of how a person feels at a specific moment in time, and not how attitudes and values change over time.
People can be categorised into their answers to surveys, etc. This is because they must choose from a limited range of answers. Interactionists believe this means that people firstly may not understand, and secondly, may be "boxed in" to answers they don't necessarily agree with.
They reject all forms of experiments, seeing them as "artificial". A more mild form of experiment, the field experiment takes place in the subject's natural surroundings. This method was supported by David Rosenhan in 1973. This is again rejected by Interactionists, who claim it is artificial, and also raises ethical issues to experiment on people. Rejection of Structuralist methods
Interactionists prefer several methods to contrast with Structuralist methods, namely; unstructured interviews, covert participant observation, overt participant observation, and analysing historical, public and personal documents by content analysis.
Interactionist methods generally reject the absolute need to provide statistics. Structuralists argue this allows cause and effect to be shown, as well as isolating variables so that relationships and trends can be distinguished over time. Instead, interactionists want to "go deep" to explain society. This draws criticisms such as:
Despite these criticisms, interactionist methods do allow flexibility. The fact that there is no hypothesis means that the sociologist is not rooted in attempting to prove dogma or theory. Instead, researcher react to what they discover, not assuming anything about society. This is arguably why some theorists have turned to this method.

Information and sociological research cannot be compared or contrasted, hence we can never truly understand how society changes. Data is not reliable.
The information that is gathered is interpreted (hence the name "Interpretivist") by a sociologist, therefore it isn't objective, but biased. Preferred Interactionist Methods

Field Experiments: David Rosenhan 1973. Studied the treatment of mental health in California and got 8 normal researchers to carry out the study at 12 hospitals. Critics say the method is unethical, and the vast majority of Interactionists concur.
Unstructured interviews: William Labov 1973. Study of socio-linguistics. Joan Smith 1998. Aaron Cicourel and John Kitsuse 1963 ethno-methodology study in American schools. Howard Becker 1971.
Participant Observation: John Howard Griffin, Michael Haralambos. Case Studies
Interactionism, or the idea that individual have more awareness, skill and power to change their own situation, links to several other theories.

Marxist Interactionists
Pluralism is the idea that the "public gets what the public wants." It is the notion that our lives offer choice like a representative democracy. This idea of consumer choice means that each individual has power as a consumer to change any aspect of life if he/she wishes to do so. The situation that exists is, according to the theory, a reflection of the norms, values and beliefs of the majority of people. It fits with the idea of individual power, although interactionist sociologists may not accept the idea that we are all labelled as "consumers".

Tuesday, January 22, 2008

Lou Donaldson (born November 1, 1926) is a jazz alto saxophonist. He was born in Badin, North Carolina. He is best known for his soulful, bluesy approach to the alto saxophone, although in his formative years he was, as many were of the bebop era, heavily influenced by Charlie Parker's improvisational approach.
His first recordings were with bop emissaries Milt Jackson and Thelonious Monk in 1952, and he led several small groups with other jazz luminaries such as trumpeter Blue Mitchell, pianist Horace Silver and the indomitable skinsman, Art Blakey.
In 1953, he also recorded sessions with the trumpet virtuoso Clifford Brown, and Philly Joe Jones, both who would go onto record some of the most renowned records of the jazz idiom. In 1954, Donaldson briefly joined the emerging hard bop ensemble, the Jazz Messengers, and appeared on one of their most popular albums, A Night At Birdland.
Although he has recorded as a sideman, he has never belonged to any band other than those of which he was leader; he has been a bandleader since the mid-1950s. He has recorded in the bop, hard bop, and soul jazz genres. For many years his pianist was Herman Foster.

Lou DonaldsonLou Donaldson Quotations
Horace Parlan:
Lou Donaldson:

Monday, January 21, 2008


Sima's family tree of the 'Western Jìn dynasty' Figure

Taishi 265274
Xianning 275280
Taikang 280289
Taixi January 28, 290May 17, 290
Yongxi May 17, 290February 15, 291
Yongping February 16April 23, 291
Yuankang April 24, 291February 6, 300
Yongkang February 7, 300February 3, 301
Yongning June 1, 301January 4, 303
Taian January 5, 303February 21, 304
Yongan February 22August 15, 304; December 25, 304February 3, 305
Jianwu August 16December 24, 304
Yongxing February 4, 305July 12, 306
Guangxi July 13, 306February 19, 307
Jianshi February 3June 1, 301
Yongjia 307313
Jianxing 313317
Jianwu 317318
Taixing 318322
Yongchang 322323
Taining 323326
Xianhe 326335
Xiankang 335342
Jianyuan 343344
Yonghe 345357
Shengping 357361
Longhe 362363
Xingning 363365
Xianan 372373
Ningkang 373375
Taiyuan 376396
Longan 397402
Yuanxing 402405
Yixi 405419
Yuanxi 419420 Jin Dynasty (265–420) Major events

Six dynasties
Sixteen Kingdoms
Chinese sovereign
List of tributaries of Imperial China
Liu Song Dynasty
Southern Dynasties
Northern Wei Dynasty
Northern Dynasties
Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Ge Hong

Sunday, January 20, 2008

  Part of a series of articles on Jews and Judaism
Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture
Judaism · Core principles God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim) Mitzvot (613) · Talmud · Halakha Holidays · Prayer · Tzedakah Ethics · Kabbalah · Customs · Midrash
Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi
Population (historical) · By country Israel · Iran · Australia · USA Russia/USSR · Poland · Canada Germany · France · England · Scotland India · Spain · Portugal · Latin America Under Muslim rule · Turkey · Iraq · Lebanon · Syria Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism
Jewish denominations · Rabbis Orthodox · Conservative · Reform Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite Humanistic · Renewal  · Alternative
Jewish languages Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian Ladino · Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic History · Timeline · Leaders Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exileRelationships between Jewish religious movementsRelationships between Jewish religious movements Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline) Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars Relationship with Christianity; with Islam Diaspora · Middle Ages · Sabbateans Hasidism · Haskalah · Emancipation Holocaust · Aliyah · Israel (History) Arab conflict · Land of Israel Baal teshuva movement
Persecution · Antisemitism History of antisemitism New antisemitism
Political movements · Zionism Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism Religious Zionism · General Zionism The Bund · World Agudath Israel Jewish feminism · Israeli politics
The relationships between the various denominations of American Judaism can be conciliatory, welcoming, or even antagonistic.

Orthodox Judaism

Main articles: Haredi Judaism and Hasidic Judaism Modern Orthodox views

Main article: Conservative Judaism Conservative views

Main article: Reform Judaism Reform views

Jewish denominations
Schisms among the Jews
Who is a Jew? Misc. topics

HEMDAT The Council for Freedom of Science, Religion and Culture in Israel
Reform Jewish leader criticizes Orthodox views

Saturday, January 19, 2008

St Mark's Campanile
St Mark's Campanile is the bell tower of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, located in the square (piazza) of the same name. It is a recognizable symbol of the city.
The tower is 98.6 meters tall, and stands alone in a corner of St Mark's Square, near the front of the basilica. It has a simple form, the bulk of which is a plain brick shaft, 12 meters on a side and 50 meters tall, above which is the arched belfry, housing five bells. The belfry is topped by a cube, alternate faces of which show walking lions and the female representation of Venice (la Giustizia: Justice). The tower is capped by a pyramidal spire, at the top of which sits a golden weathervane in the form of the archangel Gabriel. The campanile reached its present form in 1514. As it stands today, however, the tower is a reconstruction, completed in 1912 after the collapse of 1902.

Seriously damaged by a fire in 1489 that distroyed the wooden spire, the campanile assumed its definitive shape in the sixteenth century thanks to the restorations made to repair further damage caused by the earthquake of March, 1511. These works, initiated by the architect Giorgio Spavento, then executed under the direction of Bartolomeo Bon of Bergamo, added the belfry, realized in marble; the attic, on which was put the sculpture of the lion of Saint Mark and Venice; and the spire, in gold leaf. The work was completed on 6 July 1513, with the placement of the gilded wooden statue of the Archangel Gabriel in the course of a ceremony recorded by Marin Sanudo.
In the following centuries numerous other interventions were made to repair the damage caused by fires. In 1653, Baldasarre Longhena took up the restorations. More work was done after a fire on 13 April 1745, which caused some of the masonry to crack, and killed several people as a result of falling stonework. Finally, in 1776, the campanile was equipped with a lightning rod. In 1820, the statue of the angel was replaced with a new one by Luigi Zandomeneghi.

The 1902 collapse of the Campanile plays a role in American novelist Thomas Pynchon's 2006 novel Against the Day, in which an aeronautical battle between ambiguously fictitious airships results in the spectacular fall of the structure.

Friday, January 18, 2008

Hastings Mill
Hastings Mill was a saw-mill on the south shore of Burrard Inlet and was the first commercial operation around which the settlement that would become Vancouver developed in British Columbia, Canada.
In June, 1867, Captain Edward Stamp began Stamps Mill at the foot of what is now Dunlevy Street. Stamp lost ownership of the mill after a falling out with his English investors, after which the name changed. The early settlement was in effect a company town; people shopped at the Hasting's Mill Store and sent their children to the Hastings Mill School. This would change after the CPR chose Vancouver as the terminus for the transcontinental railway. Nevertheless, the lumber industry remained the backbone of the new settlement's economy, and Hastings Mill was the "the nucleus around which the city of Vancouver grew up in the 1880s," and remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s.

Thursday, January 17, 2008

List of books and films about George W. Bush By Bush

David Aikman, A Man of Faith : The Spiritual Journey of George W. Bush, (2004) ISBN 0-8499-1811-1
David Frum, The Right Man : An Inside Account of the Bush White House, (2003) ISBN 0-375-50903-8 ISBN 0-8129-6695-3
Ronald Kessler, A Matter Of Character: Inside The White House Of George W. Bush, (2004) ISBN 1-59523-000-9
Stephen Mansfield, The Faith of George W. Bush, (2003) ISBN 1-58542-309-2
Richard Miniter, Shadow War: The Untold Story of How Bush Is Winning the War on Terror, (2004) ISBN 0-89526-052-2
B. Minutaglio, First Son: George W. Bush and the Bush Family Dynasty, (1999) ISBN 0-609-80867-2
Peggy Noonan, We Will Prevail: President George W. Bush on War, Terrorism and Freedom, (2004) ISBN 0-8499-1811-1
John Podhoretz, Bush Country : How Dubya Became a Great President While Driving Liberals Insane, (2004) ISBN 0-312-32472-3
Bill Sammon, Fighting Back: The War on Terrorism from Inside the Bush White House, (2002) ISBN 0-89526-149-9
Bill Sammon, Misunderestimated: The President Battles Terrorism, John Kerry, and the Bush Haters, (2004) ISBN 0-06-072383-1
Bob Woodward, Bush At War, (2002) ISBN 0-7432-4461-3
Robert Draper, Dead Certain: The Presidency of George W. Bush, (2007) ISBN 0-7432-7728-7 Pro-Bush

Eric Alterman and Mark J. Green, The Book on Bush: How George W. (Mis)leads America, (2004) ISBN 0-670-03273-5
Ken Auletta (January 19, 2004). "Fortress Bush: How the White House Keeps the Press Under Control", The New Yorker, LXXIX, 53
Bruce Bartlett, Imposter: How George W. Bush Bankrupted America and Betrayed the Reagan Legacy, (2006) ISBN 0-385-51827-7
Paul Begala, Is Our Children Learning?: The Case Against George W. Bush, (2000) ISBN 0-7432-1478-1
Paul Begala, It's Still the Economy, Stupid : George W. Bush, The GOP's CEO, (2002) ISBN 0-7432-4647-0
John Bonifaz, Warrior King: The Case for Impeaching George Bush, (2003) ISBN 1-56025-606-0
James Bovard, The Bush Betrayal, (2004) ISBN 1-4039-6727-X
Russell S. Bowen, The Immaculate Deception: The Bush Crime Family Exposed, (1991) ISBN 0-922356-80-7
Robert Bryce, Cronies: Oil, The Bushes, and the Rise of Texas, America's Superstate, (2004) ISBN 1-58648-188-6
Robert C. Byrd, Losing America: Confronting a Reckless and Arrogant Presidency, (2004) ISBN 0-393-05942-1
Richard Clarke, Against All Enemies : Inside America's War on Terror, (2004) ISBN 0-7432-6045-7
David Corn, The Lies of George W. Bush: Mastering the Politics of Deception, (2003) ISBN 1-4000-5066-9
John W. Dean, Worse Than Watergate: The Secret Presidency of George W. Bush, (2004) ISBN 0-316-00023-X
Robert S. Devine, Bush Versus the Environment, (2004) ISBN 1-4000-7521-1
Maureen Dowd, Bushworld: Enter at Your Own Risk, (2004) ISBN 0-399-15258-X
Dr. Justin A. Frank, Bush On The Couch: Inside the Mind of the President, (2004), Regan Books. ISBN 0-06-073670-4
Al Franken, Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them: A Fair and Balanced Look at the Right, (2003) ISBN 0-525-94764-7
Al Franken, Still More George W. Bushisms: Neither in French nor in English nor in Mexican, (2003) ISBN 0-7432-5100-8
Ben Fritz, Bryan Keefer & Brendan Nyhan, All the President's Spin: George W. Bush, the Media, and the Truth, (2004) ISBN 0-7432-6251-4
James Hatfield, Fortunate Son: George W. Bush and the Making of an American President, (1999) ISBN 1-887128-84-0
Jack Huberman, The Bush - Haters Handbook: A Guide to the Most Appalling Presidency of the Past 100 Years, (2003) ISBN 1-56025-569-2
Molly Ivins, Bushwhacked : Life in George W. Bush's America, (2003) ISBN 0-375-50752-3
Molly Ivins and Lou Dubose, Shrub: The Short but Happy Political Life of George W. Bush, (2000) ISBN 0-375-50399-4
Patrick S. Johnston, Mission Accomplished (Novel), (2006) ISBN 1-59858-244-5
Robert F. Kennedy Jr., Crimes Against Nature: How George W. Bush and His Corporate Pals Are Plundering the Country and Hijacking Our Democracy, (2004) ISBN 0-06-074687-4
Mark Crispin Miller, The Bush Dyslexicon: Observations on a National Disorder, (2002) ISBN 0-393-32296-3
Mark Crispin Miller, Cruel and Unusual: Bush/Cheney's New World Order, (2004) ISBN 0-393-05917-0
Michael Moore, Dude, Where's My Country?, (2004) ISBN 0-446-69379-0
Michael Moore, Stupid White Men, (2004) ISBN 0-06-098726-X
Michael Moore, Fahrenheit 9/11 (2004) motion picture
Gabriel Range, Death of a President (2006) motion picture
Webster Griffin Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin, George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography ([1]
Michael Scheuer (orig. pub. under "Anonymous"), Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Losing the War on Terror, (2004) ISBN 1-57488-849-8
Glenn W Smith, Unfit Commander: Texans for Truth Take on George W. Bush, (2004) ISBN 0-06-079245-0
Craig Unger, House of Bush, House of Saud: The Secret Relationship Between the World's Two Most Powerful Dynasties, (2004) ISBN 0-7432-5337-X
Paul Waldman, Fraud: The Strategy Behind the Bush Lies and Why the Media Didn't Tell You, (2004) ISBN 1-4022-0252-0
Ian Williams, Deserter: George Bush's War on Military Families, Veterans, and His Past, (2004) ISBN 1-56025-627-3
Clint Willis, The I Hate George W. Bush Reader: Why Dubya Is Wrong About Absolutely Everything, (2004) ISBN 1-56025-589-7
Bob Woodward, "State of Denial", (2006)
William Karel, The World According to Bush, (2004) documentary
Ben Fritz, Bryan Keefer & Brendan Nyhan, All the President's Spin: George W. Bush, the Media, and the Truth, (2004) ISBN 0-7432-6251-4
Carl Pope, Strategic Ignorance : Why the Bush Administration Is Recklessly Destroying a Century of Environmental Progress, (2004) ISBN 1-57805-109-6 List of books and films about George W. Bush Mostly neutral

Vincent Bugliosi, The Betrayal of America: How the Supreme Court Undermined the Constitution and Chose Our President, (2001) ISBN 1-56025-355-X
Alan M. Dershowitz, Supreme Injustice: How the High Court Hijacked Election 2000, (2001) ISBN 0-19-514827-4
Bob Fitrakis, Did George W. Bush Steal America's 2004 Election?, (2005) ISBN 0-9710438-9-2
Steve Freeman and Joel Bleifuss, Was the 2004 Presidential Election Stolen?: Exit Polls, Election Fraud, and the Official Count, (2005) ISBN 1-58322-687-7
H. Gillman, The Votes That Counted: How the Court Decided the 2000 Presidential Election, (2001) ISBN 0-226-29408-0
Anita Miller, What Went Wrong In Ohio: The Conyers Report On The 2004 Presidential Election, (2005) ISBN 0-89733-535-X
Mark Crispin Miller, Fooled Again, (2005) ISBN 0-465-04579-0
Ellen Nakashima, Washington Post, et al., Deadlock: The Inside Story of America's Closest Election, (2001) ISBN 1-58648-080-4
New York Times, 36 Days: The Complete Chronicle of the 2000 Presidential Election Crisis, (2001) ISBN 0-8050-6850-3
David North, The Crisis of American Democracy: The Presidential Elections of 2000 and 2004, (2004) ISBN 1-875639-36-5
Richard A. Posner, Breaking the Deadlock: The 2000 Election, the Constitution, and the Courts, (2001) ISBN 0-691-09073-4
Jack N. Rakove (ed.), The Unfinished Election of 2000, (2002) ISBN 0-465-06838-3
Larry J. Sabato, Overtime! The Election 2000 Thriller, (2001) ISBN 0-321-10028-X
Jake Tapper, Down and Dirty: The Plot to Steal the Presidency, (2001) ISBN 0-316-83264-2
Jeffrey Toobin, Too Close to Call: The Thirty-Six-Day Battle to Decide the 2000 Election, (2002) ISBN 0-375-76107-1

Wednesday, January 16, 2008

James Bond locations
This is a list of locations in which films of the James Bond series have been set and filmed.

James Bond locations Shooting locations
A number of well-known international landmarks figure prominently in the film series.