Friday, August 31, 2007

Michael Monarch
Michael Monarch (born on July 5, 1950 in Los Angeles, California) is an American guitarist best known for his work with Steppenwolf.
As the original lead guitarist with Steppenwolf he played on all their hits, including "Born to Be Wild", "Magic Carpet Ride", and "Rock Me". He also played on Janis Joplin's album "I Got Dem Ol' Kozmic Blues Again Mama!". He later went on to record for the SwanSong/Atlantic recording group Detective.
For the last decade Monarch has been busy writing and producing music, as well as performing with other '60s and '70s rock stars in the supergroup World Classic Rockers.
When Iron Butterfly reformed in 1968 after a brief break-up, Monarch was reportedly interested in playing lead guitar. Others interested in the position were Jeff Beck and Neil Young.

Thursday, August 30, 2007

Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta, Marshal of France (13 July 1808 - 16 October 1893) was a Frenchman of Irish descent. He served as Chief of State of France from 1873 to 1875 and as the first president of the Third Republic, from 1875 to 1879. To date, he and Charles de Gaulle (his maternal grandmother being a McCartan) are the only people of Irish descent to have served as heads of state in Continental Europe.

Military career
He served as Governor-General of Algeria from 1 September 1864, returning at the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, during which he led an Alsatian army unit (although attrition throughout the war led to men from other areas being added to this).
In the Franco-Prussian War MacMahon commanded the I and V French Corps on the Rhine Army's Southern line. On 4 August, 1870 the Prussian 3rd Army attacked the Southern line, and immediately won the border city of Wissembourg from the French; quickly moving onto capture the city of Woerth two days later.
After less than a week of fighting, the entire French Rhine Army's Southern line could not withstand the Prussian aggression and retreated West, further into French territory. The Prussians were relentless. The Prussian 3rd Army was capturing town after town, while their defeated opponents I and V Corps hastily retreated to Chalon-s.-Marne making sure to stay out of the way of the advancing Prussians by heading southwest while the Prussians drove West.
Mac-Mahon left his Corps and led the 120,000 strong remnants of the French Rhine army (I, VII, XII Corps) with Napoleon III. They began marching from Chalons-s.-Marne North/Northeast, in an attempt to rally the besieged army at Metz over 130 km to the East. But the Prussian 3rd Army advance was incredible; in less than 3 weeks the army covered over 325 km, and intercepted the French army along the Meuse River, and for three days battled it (29 to 31 August), forcing the French to fall to Sedan. Meanwhile, the Prussians had created a 4th Army, and marched the it to the southern flank of Sedan, while the 3rd Army dug in North of Sedan.
On 1 September 1870, the Prussians thus laid siege to the city of Sedan. Standing at the gates was a powerful force of 200,000 Prussian soldiers under the command of General Helmuth von Moltke. Mac-Mahon was highly indecisive, allowing the Germans to move in reinforcements to completely encircle Sedan.
Mac-Mahon was wounded and command passed to General De Wimpffen who announced the surrender of the French army. On 2 September Napoleon III surrendered, along with his remaining 83,000 French troops (Battle of Sedan).

Patrice MacMahon, duc de MagentaPatrice MacMahon, duc de Magenta Franco-Prussian War
When the Paris Commune was suppressed in May 1871, Mac-Mahon led the Versailles troops. The French army spent eight days massacring workers, shooting civilians on sight. Tens of thousands of Communards and workers were summarily executed (as many as 30,000); 38,000 others imprisoned and 7,000 were forcibly deported.
As president of France, he controversially dismissed the republican Prime Minister Jules Simon, replacing him with the Orleanist duc de Broglie, before dissolving the French National Assembly on 16 May 1877 in an effort to halt the rise of Republicanism and boost the prospects of a restoration of the monarchy under the Comte de Chambord. This event is known as the 16 May 1877 crisis.
The Assembly having (9 November 1873) fixed his term of office at seven years, he declared in a speech delivered 4 February 1874 that he would know how to make the legally established order of things respected for seven years. Preferring to remain above party, he rather assisted at than took part in the proceedings which, in January and February 1875, led up to the passage of the fundamental laws finally establishing the Republic as the legal government of France. And yet Mac-Mahon writes in his still unpublished memoirs: "By family tradition, and by the sentiments towards the royal house which were instilled in me by my early education, I could not be anything but a Legitimist." He felt some repugnance, too, in forming, in 1876 the Dufaure and the Jules Simon cabinets, in which the Republican element was represented.
When the episcopal charges of the bishops of Poitiers, Nimes, and Nevers, recommending the case of the captive Pope Pius IX to the sympathy of the French Government, were met by a resolution in the Chamber, proposed by the Left, that the Government be requested "to repress Ultramontane manifestations" (4 May 1877), Mac-Mahon, twelve days later, asked Jules Simon to resign, summoned to power a conservative ministry under the Duc de Broglie, persuaded the Senate to dissolve the Chamber, and travelled through the country to assure the success of the Conservatives in the elections, protesting at the same time that he did not wish to overturn the Republic. However, the elections of 14 October resulted in a majority of 120 for the Left; the de Broglie ministry resigned on 19 November, and the president formed a Left cabinet under Dufaure. He retained his office until 1878, so as to allow the Exposition Universelle to take place in political peace, and then, the senatorial elections of 5 January 1879, having brought another victory to the Left, Mac-Mahon found a pretext to resign (30 January 1879), and Jules Grévy succeeded him.
This soldier was not made for politics. "I have remained a soldier", he says in his memoirs, "and I can conscientiously say that I have not only served one government after another loyally, but, when they fell, have regretted all of them with the single exception of my own." In his voluntary retirement he carried with him the esteem of all parties: Jules Simon, who did not love him, and whom he did not love, afterwards called him "a great captain, a great citizen, and a righteous man" (un grand capitaine, un grand citoyen et un homme de bien). His presidency may be summed up in two words: on the one hand, he allowed the Republic to establish itself; on the other hand, so far as his lawful prerogatives permitted, he retarded the political advance of parties hostile to the Catholic church, convinced that the triumph of Radicalism would be to the detriment of France. The last fourteen years of his life were passed in retirement, quite removed from political interests.
He died at Montcresson, Loiret in 1893. He was buried, with national honours, in the crypt of the Invalides.


Irish Brigade (French)
Flight of the Wild Geese
16 May 1877 crisis

Tuesday, August 28, 2007

Window tax
The window tax was a glass tax which was a significant social, cultural, and architectural force in the kingdoms of England, Scotland and then Great Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries. Some houses from the period can be seen to have bricked-up windows, as a result of the tax.
Glass making was costly and the use of glass for windows and other purposes was even costlier because of a tax levied specifically on it. The tax was introduced in 1696 under King William III and was designed to impose tax relative to the prosperity of the taxpayer, but without the controversy that then surrounded the idea of income tax. At that time, many people in Britain opposed income tax, on principle, because they believed that the disclosure of personal income represented an unacceptable government intrusion into private matters, and a potential threat to personal liberty. In fact the first British income tax was not introduced until the late 18th century and the issue remained intensely controversial well into the 19th century. Window tax was relatively unintrusive and easy to assess. The bigger the house, the more windows it was likely to have, and the more tax the occupants would pay.
The richest families in the kingdoms used this tax to set themselves apart from the merely rich. They would commission a country home or a manor house whose architecture would make the maximum possible use of windows. In extreme cases they would have windows built over structural walls. It was an exercise in ostentation, spurred by the window tax.
The tax was not repealed until 1851, when it was replaced by a tax akin to the present-day council tax.
Some allege that the term "daylight robbery" originated from this tax, but given that the phrase daylight robbery was first recorded in 1949, many years after the "window tax", this seems unlikely.
The Oxford English Dictionary's (OED) first example of daylight robbery was from 1949. Though the figurative sense has been around a bit longer than the OED says — it appears for example in Harold Brighouse's 1916 play Hobson's Choice.
A similar tax existed in France from 1798 to 1926, the Doors And Windows Tax.

Monday, August 27, 2007

Defence Council of the United Kingdom
The Defence Council of the United Kingdom is the body legally entrusted with the defence of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories and with control over the British armed forces, and is part of the Ministry of Defence.

The members of the Defence Council are:

Sunday, August 26, 2007

Data compression
In computer science and information theory, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits (or other information-bearing units) than an unencoded representation would use through use of specific encoding schemes. For example, this article could be encoded with fewer bits if one were to accept the convention that the word "compression" be encoded as "comp." One popular instance of compression with which many computer users are familiar is the ZIP file format, which, as well as providing compression, acts as an archiver, storing many files in a single output file.
As with any communication, compressed data communication only works when both the sender and receiver of the information understand the encoding scheme. For example, this text makes sense only if the receiver understands that it is intended to be interpreted as characters representing the English language. Similarly, compressed data can only be understood if the decoding method is known by the receiver.
Compression is useful because it helps reduce the consumption of expensive resources, such as hard disk space or transmission bandwidth. On the downside, compressed data must be decompressed to be viewed (or heard), and this extra processing may be detrimental to some applications. For instance, a compression scheme for video may require expensive hardware for the video to be decompressed fast enough to be viewed as it's being decompressed (the option of decompressing the video in full before watching it may be inconvenient, and requires storage space for the decompressed video). The design of data compression schemes therefore involve trade-offs among various factors, including the degree of compression, the amount of distortion introduced (if using a lossy compression scheme), and the computational resources required to compress and uncompress the data.

Data compression Lossless vs. lossy compression
The above is a very simple example of run-length encoding, wherein large runs of consecutive identical data values are replaced by a simple code with the data value and length of the run. This is an example of lossless data compression. It is often used to optimize disk space on office computers, or better use the connection bandwidth in a computer network. For symbolic data such as spreadsheets, text, executable programs, etc., losslessness is essential because changing even a single bit cannot be tolerated (except in some limited cases).
For visual and audio data, some loss of quality can be tolerated without losing the essential nature of the data. By taking advantage of the limitations of the human sensory system, a great deal of space can be saved while producing an output which is nearly indistinguishable from the original. These lossy data compression methods typically offer a three-way tradeoff between compression speed, compressed data size and quality loss.
Lossy image compression is used in digital cameras, greatly increasing their storage capacities while hardly degrading picture quality at all. Similarly, DVDs use the lossy MPEG-2 codec for video compression.
In lossy audio compression, methods of psychoacoustics are used to remove non-audible (or less audible) components of the signal. Compression of human speech is often performed with even more specialized techniques, so that "speech compression" or "voice coding" is sometimes distinguished as a separate discipline than "audio compression". Different audio and speech compression standards are listed under audio codecs. Voice compression is used in Internet telephony for example, while audio compression is used for CD ripping and is decoded by audio players.

The theoretical background of compression is provided by information theory (which is closely related to algorithmic information theory) and by rate-distortion theory. These fields of study were essentially created by Claude Shannon, who published fundamental papers on the topic in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Doyle and Carlson (2000) wrote that data compression "has one of the simplest and most elegant design theories in all of engineering". Cryptography and coding theory are also closely related. The idea of data compression is deeply connected with statistical inference.
Many lossless data compression systems can be viewed in terms of a four-stage model. Lossy data compression systems typically include even more stages, including, for example, prediction, frequency transformation, and quantization.
The Lempel-Ziv (LZ) compression methods are among the most popular algorithms for lossless storage. DEFLATE is a variation on LZ which is optimized for decompression speed and compression ratio, although compression can be slow. DEFLATE is used in PKZIP, gzip and PNG. LZW (Lempel-Ziv-Welch) is used in GIF images. Also noteworthy are the LZR (LZ-Renau) methods, which serve as the basis of the Zip method. LZ methods utilize a table-based compression model where table entries are substituted for repeated strings of data. For most LZ methods, this table is generated dynamically from earlier data in the input. The table itself is often Huffman encoded (e.g. SHRI, LZX). A current LZ based coding scheme that performs well is LZX, used in Microsoft's CAB format.
The very best compressors use probabilistic models whose predictions are coupled to an algorithm called arithmetic coding. Arithmetic coding, invented by Jorma Rissanen, and turned into a practical method by Witten, Neal, and Cleary, achieves superior compression to the better-known Huffman algorithm, and lends itself especially well to adaptive data compression tasks where the predictions are strongly context-dependent. Arithmetic coding is used in the bilevel image-compression standard JBIG, and the document-compression standard DjVu. The text entry system, Dasher, is an inverse-arithmetic-coder.
Matt Mahoney, one of the 3 founders of the Hutter Prize, claims that "Compression is Equivalent to General Intelligence" .

Independent comparison of different methods of data compression (Results & Softwares, in French. Airelle, 2007). Numbers in parenthesis are the rank of the method of compression for the category of file specified above.
P.Table(P.T.): PAQ8 (kgb archiver is Windows GUI of old PAQ7) is much better than this all, but for the copyright of the table it can't be copied.
Globally, the three best methods tested are rk, uha and 7z. WinRK is a commercial software, UHarc is a freeware and only 7-zip is free, open source (LGPL licence) and can be used with Linux.

Text files, such as .htm or .txt, can be hard compressed.
Some files are already compressed (e.g. .mp3 or .zip), so the compression rate of such files is poor. Due to the addition of header data, often there are diminishing returns in such compression, causing the file to actually be slightly larger upon storage.
To be more representative of the performance, the global score (/20) is calculated with a non-parametric formula after the sum of the ranks (1 to 20) for each of the 20 tested methods. See also

Algorithmic complexity theory
Information entropy
Self-extracting archive
Image compression
Speech compression
Video compression
Multimedia compression
Minimum description length
Minimum message length (two-part lossless compression designed for inference)
List of archive formats
List of file archivers
Comparison of file archivers
List of Unix programs
Free file format
HTTP compression
Reverse Delta Data compression topics

Compression algorithms

run-length encoding
dictionary coders

  • LZ77 & LZ78
    Burrows-Wheeler transform
    prediction by partial matching (also known as PPM)
    context mixing
    Dynamic Markov Compression (DMC)
    entropy encoding

    • Huffman coding (simple entropy coding; commonly used as the final stage of compression)
      Adaptive Huffman coding
      arithmetic coding (more advanced)

      • Shannon-Fano coding
        range encoding (same as arithmetic coding, but looked at in a slightly different way)
        T-code, A variant of Huffman code
        Golomb coding (simple entropy coding for infinite input data with a geometric distribution)
        universal codes (entropy coding for infinite input data with an arbitrary distribution)

        • Elias gamma coding
          Fibonacci coding Lossless data compression

          discrete cosine transform
          fractal compression

          • fractal transform
            wavelet compression
            vector quantization
            linear predictive coding
            Distributed Source Coding Using Syndromes, for correlated data
            Modulo-N code for correlated data
            A-law Compander
            Mu-law Compander Example implementations
            Data collections, commonly used for comparing compression algorithms.

            Canterbury Corpus
            Calgary Corpus

Saturday, August 25, 2007

Artie Lange
Europa (IPA: [juˈroʊpə] listen ; Greek Ευρώπη) is the sixth nearest and fourth largest natural satellite of the planet Jupiter. Europa was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei (and independently by Simon Marius shortly thereafter) and is the smallest of the four Galilean moons named in Galileo's honor.
Europa is primarily composed of silicate rock, has an outer layer of water, and likely has an iron core. At just over 3000 kilometers in diameter, it is slightly smaller than the Earth's moon and the sixth largest moon in the solar system. The satellite has a very tenuous oxygen atmosphere and one of the smoothest surfaces in the solar system. The young surface of the planet is straited by cracks and streaks, while craters are relatively infrequent. Due to an hypothesized water ocean beneath its icy surface, and an energy source provided by tidal heating, Europa has been cited as a possible host of extraterrestrial life.

Europa (moon) Discovery and naming
Europa orbits Jupiter in just over three and a half days, with an orbital radius of about 670,900 km (416,900 mi). The satellite follows a very nearly circular orbit, with an eccentricity of only 0.009. Europa's orbital inclination relative to the Jovian equatorial plane is also slight, at 0.470°.
Because of its orbit's slight eccentricity, maintained by the gravitational disturbances from the other Galilean satellites of the planet, the sub-jovian point oscillates about a mean position. Europa strives to assume a slightly elongated shape pointing towards Jupiter in response to the tidal force of the giant planet; because different parts of Europa end up being on different points of this departure from sphericity at varying times, the crust flexes up and down. This motion dissipates energy from Jupiter's rotation into Europa (tidal heating), giving the moon a source of heat and energy, allowing the subsurface ocean to stay liquefied and driving subsurface geological processes.


Physical characteristics
Europa is somewhat similar in bulk composition to the terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of silicate rock. It has an outer layer of water thought to be around 100 km thick (some, as frozen ice upper crust; some, as liquid ocean underneath the ice), and recent magnetic field data from the Galileo orbiter probe, which orbited Jupiter and studied Europa between 1995 and 2003, shows that Europa generates an induced magnetic field by interacting with Jupiter's field, which suggests the presence of a subsurface conductive layer which is likely a salty liquid-water ocean. Europa probably also contains a metallic iron core.

Internal structure
The Europan surface is relatively smooth; few features more than a few hundred metres high have been observed, but topographic relief in places approaches a kilometre (0.62 mi)). Cynthia Phillips, a member of SETI and an expert on Europa states there is currently no consensus among the often contradictory explanations for the surface features of Europa.[2]

Surface features

Main article: List of lineae on Europa Lineae

Main article: List of geological features on Europa Other geological features
It is thought that under the surface there is a layer of liquid water kept warm by tidally generated heat. The temperature on the surface of Europa averages about 110 K (-163 °C) at the equator and only 50 K (-223 °C) at the poles, and so the surface water ice is permanently frozen. The first hints of a subsurface ocean came from theoretical considerations of the tidal heating (a consequence of Europa's slightly eccentric orbit and orbital resonance with the other Galilean moons). Galileo imaging team members have analyzed Voyager and Galileo images of Europa to argue that Europa's geological features also demonstrate the existence of a subsurface ocean. Spectrographic evidence suggests that the dark reddish streaks and features on Europa's surface may be rich in salts such as magnesium sulfate, deposited by evaporating water that emerged from within. Sulfuric acid hydrate is another possible explanation for the contaminant observed spectroscopically. In either case, since these materials are colorless or white when pure, some other material must also be present to account for the reddish color. Sulfur compounds are suspected.

Most human knowledge of Europa has been derived from a series of flybys since the 1970s. The sister craft Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 were the first to visit Jupiter, in 1973 and 1974, respectively; the first photos of Jupiter's largest moons produced by the Pioneers were fuzzy and dim.

It has been suggested that life may exist in this under-ice ocean, perhaps subsisting in an environment similar to Earth's deep-ocean hydrothermal vents or the Antarctic Lake Vostok.

Spacecraft proposals and cancellations

Jupiter's moons in fiction
List of craters on Europa
List of lineae on Europa
List of geological features on Europa
List of Jupiter's moons
Colonization of Europa

Friday, August 24, 2007

Frenulum of prepuce of penis Sensitivity
Frenulum breve is the condition in which the frenulum of the penis is short and restricts the movement of the prepuce, which may or may not interfere with normal sexual activity. The condition can be treated by frenuloplasty, frenectomy, or circumcision.
The frenulum may be entirely missing in cases of first degree Hypospadias.[1]
Frenulum breve may contribute to frenular chordee, where the glans is pulled toward the vernal body of the penis.
It is possible for the frenulum of the penis to tear during sexual activity. The frenular artery may be severed, causing significant bleeding.

Frenulum of prepuce of penis Additional images

Frenular delta
Frenum piercing

Thursday, August 23, 2007

The political integration of India established a united nation for the first time in centuries from a plethora of princely states, colonial provinces and possessions. Despite partition, a new India united peoples of various geographic, economic, ethnic, linguistic and religious backgrounds. The process began in 1947, with the unification of 565 princely states through a critical series of political campaigns, sensitive diplomacy and military conflicts. India was transformed after independence through political upheaval and ethnic discontent, and continues to evolve as a federal republic natural to its diversity. The process is defined by sensitive religious conflicts between Hindus and Muslims, diverse ethnic populations, as well as by geo-political rivalry and military conflicts with Pakistan and China.
When the Indian independence movement succeeded in ending the British Raj on August 15, 1947, India's leaders faced the prospect of inheriting a nation fragmented between medieval-era kingdoms and provinces organised by colonial powers. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, one of India's most respected freedom fighters, as the new Minister of Home Affairs was the man responsible for employing political negotiations backed with the option (and the use) of military force to ensure the primacy of the Central government and of the Constitution then being drafted.
India's constitution pronounced it a Union of States, exemplifying a federal system with a strong central government. Over the course of the two decades following Independence the Government of India reclaimed the possessions of the French Empire and Portugal. But the trend changed as popular movements arose for the recognition of regional languages, and attention for the special issues of diverse regions. A backlash ensued against centralization — the lack of attention and respect for regional issues resulted in cultural alienation and violent separatism. The Central government attempted to balance the use of force on separatist extremists with the creation of new States in order to reduce the pressures on the Indian State. The map has been redrawn, as the nature of the federation transforms. Today, the Republic of India is a Union of 28 states and 7 territories.

British India

Main article: List of Indian Princely States Princely states
The states of Gwalior, Bikaner, Patiala and Baroda were the first to join India on April 28, 1947. Others were wary, distrusting a democratic government led by revolutionaries of uncertain, and possibly radical views, and fearful of losing their influence as rulers. Travancore and Hyderabad announced their desire for independence while the Nawab of Bhopal, Hamidullah Khan, expressed his desire to either negotiate with Pakistan or seek independence. The Nawab was a powerful influence on a number of princes, as he was the former chancellor of the Chamber of Princes. In addition, Jodhpur, Indore and Jaisalmer conducted a dialogue with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the slated Governor-General of Pakistan, to discuss terms for a possible accession to it. While this surprised many in both India and Pakistan, neither party could ultimately ignore the fact that these kingdoms were Hindu-majority, which rendered their membership in overwhelmingly Muslim Pakistan untenable.
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was the Minister for Home and States Affairs, and was given the explicit responsibility of welding a united and strategically secure India in time for the transfer of power. Patel was considered the best man for the task by the Congress Party, as well as Lord Mountbatten and senior British officials. Mahatma Gandhi had, in fact, said to Patel "the problem of the States is so difficult that you alone can solve it". for his decisive actions at this time.

Process of accession
Sardar Patel and V.P. Menon devised a formula to propose to the monarchs. The Instrument of Accession was the official treaty to be signed between the Government of India or the Government of Pakistan and the accession candidates. According to the basic tenets of the treaty, the Government of India would control only foreign affairs, defence and communications, leaving all internal issues to be administered by the states. On July 5, 1947, the official policy of the Government of India was released, and stated:
Considering that the princes had to sign away the sovereignty of states where their families had reigned for centuries, and that they believed that India's security would be jeopardised if even one state refused to sign on, Patel and Menon were of the opinion that this was the best deal that could be put to the princes. While negotiating with the states, Patel and Menon also guaranteed that monarchs who signed on willingly would be retained as constitutional heads of state, although they would be 'encouraged' to hand their power over to an elected government. Once the Instrument of Accession was signed, the state would be represented in the Constituent Assembly of India, thus becoming an active participant in framing the new Constitution.

Instrument of accession
On May 6, 1947, Patel began lobbying the princes, attempting to make them receptive towards dialogue with the future Government and trying to forestall potential conflicts. Patel used social meetings and unofficial surroundings to engage most monarchs, inviting them to lunch and tea at his home in Delhi. At these meetings, Patel would claim that there was no inherent conflict between the Congress and the princely order. Nonetheless, he stressed that Congress expected the princes to accede to India in good faith before the deadline, August 15, 1947. Patel also listened to the monarchs' opinions, seeking to address their two chief concerns:
Patel invoked the patriotism of India's monarchs, asking them to join in the freedom of their nation and act as responsible rulers who cared about the future of their people. V. P. Menon was frequently dispatched to hold talks with the ministers and monarchs. Menon would work each day with Patel, calling him twice, including a final status report in the night. Menon was Patel's closest advisor and aide on the diplomacy and tactics, and handling of potential conflicts, as well as his link with British officials. Patel also enlisted Lord Mountbatten, who was trusted by most of the princes and was a personal friend of many, especially the Nawab of Bhopal, Hamidullah Khan. Mountbatten was also a credible figure because Jawaharlal Nehru and Patel had asked him to become the first Governor General of the Dominion of India. In a July, 1947 gathering of rulers, Mountbatten laid out his argument:
Mountbatten stressed that he would act as the trustee of the princes' commitment, as he would be serving as India's head of state well into 1948. Mountbatten engaged in a personal dialogue with the Nawab of Bhopal. He asked through a confidential letter to him, that he sign the instrument of accession, which Mountbatten would keep locked up in his safe. It would be handed to the States Department on August 15 only if the Nawab did not change his mind before then, which he was free to do. The Nawab agreed, and did not renege over the deal.

The princes feared that the Congress would be hostile to the princely order, attacking their property and, indeed, their civil liberties. They were moved to this concern by the fact that a large proportion of Congress was of socialist inclination. Patel, no socialist himself, promised personally that the Congress, would not politically attack the Indian princes nor deprive them of any more political power or property than was 'necessary' for the stability and unity of India.
Patel assured the monarchs of the states that after acceding to India, they would be allowed to retain their property and estates. Further, they would be fully eligible to run for public office.
For the loss of income (from revenue), the monarchs would be compensated with a privy purse.
The princes were also worried that the guarantees offered by Patel while the British were still in charge would be scrapped after August 15. Patel thus had to promise to include the guarantees of privy purses and limited central powers in the as yet unframed Constitution. Patel's diplomacy
From June to August 15, 1947, 562 of the 565 India-linked states signed the instrument of accession. Despite dramatic political exchanges, Travancore, Jodhpur and Indore signed on time. Patel was also willing to take on other Indian leaders for the sake of accomplishing the job. The privy purse pledge was offensive to many socialists, and Prime Minister Nehru had complained of Patel by-passing the Cabinet to make the pledge to the Princes. Patel described the pledge as an essential guarantee of the Government's intentions, and it was duly incorporated into the Constitution. (In 1971, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's Congress Party would repeal the clause through a constitutional amendment.) Patel defended their right to retain property and contest elections for public office, and today, especially in states like Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, descendants of the formerly royal families play an important role in politics.
However, in the strenuous process of integration three major conflicts arose that posed a major threat to the Union:

Accession of the states

Main article: Indian Integration of Junagadh Junagadh

Main article: History of the Kashmir conflictPolitical integration of India Hyderabad
Different theories have been proposed to explain the designs of Indian and Pakistani leaders in this period. Rajmohan Gandhi postulates that an ideal deal working in the mind of Patel was that if Muhammad Ali Jinnah let India have Junagadh and Hyderabad, Patel would not object to Kashmir acceding to Pakistan. In her book The Sole Spokesman, Ayesha Jalal argues that Jinnah had never actually wanted partition, but once created, he wanted Pakistan to become a secular state that was inclusive to its Hindu minority and strategically secure from a geographically-larger India, thus encouraging Hindu states to join. When Jinnah remained adamant about Junagadh, and when the invasion of Kashmir began in September 1947, Patel exerted himself over the defense and integration of Kashmir into India. India and Pakistan clashed over Kashmir in 1965 and 1971, as well as over the sovereignty of the Rann of Kutch in August, 1965.

Conflicting agendas
Many of the 565 states that had joined the Union were very small and lacked resources to sustain their economies and support their growing populations. Many published their own currency, imposed restrictions and their own tax rules that impeded free trade. Although Prajamandals (People's Conventions) had been organised to increase democracy, a contentious debate opened over dissolving the very states India promised to officially recognise just months ago. Challenged by princes, Sardar Patel and V. P. Menon emphasized that without integration, the economies of states would collapse, and anarchy would arise if the princes were unable to provide democracy and govern properly. In December 1947, over 40 states in central and eastern India were merged into the Central Provinces and Orissa. Similarly, Patel also obtained the unification of 222 states in the Kathiawar peninsula of his native Gujarat. In a meeting with the rulers, Menon said:
In Punjab, the Patiala and East Punjab States Union was formed. Madhya Bharat and Vindhya Pradesh emerged from the princely states of the former Central India Agency. Himachal Pradesh was created from 30 states of the former Punjab Hill States Agency. A few large states, including Mysore, Kutch, and Bilaspur, remained distinct, but a great many more were merged into the provinces. The Northeast Frontier Agency (present-day Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland) was administered by the Ministry of External Affairs with the Governor of Assam. The Constitution of India, adopted on January 26, 1950 gave the states many powers, but the Union government had superior powers — including dissolving state governments if law and order were disrupted. National institutions were emphasized to prevent factionalism and separatism. A common judiciary and the Indian Administrative Service and Indian Police Service were created to erect a single government infrastructure. The united leadership to fight social, economic challenges of India for the first time in thousands of years was welcomed by most Indians.

Political integration of India Integrating the Union
See also: French India, Portuguese India
In the 1950s, the regions of Pondicherry, Karikal, Yanaon, Mahe and Chandernagore were still colonies of France, and Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Goa remained as colonies of Portugal. The lodges in Machilipatnam, Kozhikode and Surat were ceded to India in October 1947. An agreement between France and India in 1948 agreed to an election in France's remaining Indian possessions to choose their political future. Chandernagore was ceded to India on May 2, 1950, and was merged with West Bengal on October 2, 1955. On November 1, 1954, the four enclaves of Pondicherry, Yanaon, Mahe, and Karikal were de facto transferred to the Indian Union and became the Union territory of Pondicherry. Portugal had resisted diplomatic solutions, and refused to transfer power. Dadra and Nagar Haveli were incorporated into India in 1953 after bands of Indian irregulars occupied the lands, but Goa, Daman and Diu remained a bone of contention.
Arbitration by the World Court and the United Nations General Assembly favoured self-determination, but Portugal resisted all overtures from India. On December 18, 1961, in what Prime Minister Nehru termed as a police action, the Indian Army liberated Goa, Daman and Diu. The Portuguese surrendered on December 19, and 3,000 Portuguese soldiers became prisoners of war. This take-over ended the last of the European colonies in India. In 1987, Goa achieved statehood.

Pondicherry and Goa

Main article: States Reorganization Act States reorganization
A culture of centralization was resented across many regions — it stifled regional autonomy and cultural identity. Inefficiency, corruption and economic stagnation in 1960s and 1970s aided this argument. Although Punjab was one of the most prosperous states, demands for greater autonomy and statehood arose. In 1966, Punjab was divided into Sikh-majority Punjab and Hindu-majority Haryana, with their joint capital in Chandigarh, a union territory. Certain northern districts were allocated to Himachal Pradesh. Jawaharlal Nehru had opposed creating separate states for different religious communities, but it was carried out by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, who faced pressure from the SGPC and leaders like Master Tara Singh. When the Khalistan insurgency created turmoil in the 1980s, the Army attacked militant encampments in the Golden Temple. Neglect and discrimination by the Union government, as well as poverty and cultural aversion resulted in violence against refugees from Bangladesh and other settlers. The ULFA insurgency paralyzed Assam in the 1980s. Similar tensions in Mizoram and Tripura forced the Indian government to impose a martial law environment. The decline of popular appeal, increased autonomy, economic development and rising tourism has helped considerably reduce violence across the region.

Punjab and northeastern India
Several new states were created in 2000 — Chhattisgarh (from Madhya Pradesh), Jharkhand (from Bihar) and Uttarakhand (from Uttar Pradesh). This resulted from a national debate concerning the purported need to partition large states burdened with socioeconomic challenges, including overpopulation and the political marginalisation of ethnic minorities. Such debate has not ceased: there are proposals for the creation of Vidarbha from Maharashtra, Telangana from Andhra Pradesh, Bundelkhand from parts of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, and Jammu and Ladakh from Kashmir. In 2003, an agreement was signed between the Union government, the state of Assam and the main Bodo separatist groups. This created the Bodoland Territorial Councils, which granted autonomy to regions with significant Bodo populations. Other groups are pushing for the conferral of statehood upon Kutch, Cooch Behar, Gorkhaland, Kamtapur and Coorg.

See also

Wednesday, August 22, 2007

Bauhaus are an English rock band, formed in Northampton in 1978 by Peter Murphy (vocals), Daniel Ash (guitar), Kevin Haskins (drums) and David J (bass). The band took their name from the German Bauhaus art movement, originally going by the name Bauhaus 1919, dropping the latter portion within a year of the band's formation. The typeface used by the band for the band name on album covers and other products is the same typeface used on the Bauhaus college building in Dessau, Germany. With their dark, gloomy sound and image, Bauhaus is considered to be one of the first gothic rock bands. Bauhaus broke up in 1983, with the band members going on to greater commercial success in other projects than they had in Bauhaus. The band reunited for a 1998 tour, and reunited again on a more permanent basis in 2005 with plans to record another album.

After Bauhaus disbanded, all members of the band did various solo work. Peter Murphy worked briefly with bassist Mick Karn of Japan in the band Dali's Car before going solo with such albums as Deep and Love Hysteria. Daniel Ash has also put out solo albums and released music under the name Tones on Tail with Kevin Haskins and Bauhaus roadie Glen Campling. David J has released multiple solo albums and has collaborated with several other musicians such as the Jazz Butcher band, as well as with comics writer/spoken-word artist Alan Moore on his performance piece The Birth Caul, over the years. He is currently working on his visual arts. Kevin Haskins has been making electronic music for video games, and also has been producing musical artists such as Gary Numan.
Ash and the Haskins brothers formed Love and Rockets in 1985, who achieved a US hit four years later with "So Alive". The band broke up after seven albums in 1999.

Bauhaus (band) Reformation
Bauhaus combined a number of influences including punk music, glam rock, German post-psychedelic experimentalists, even funk and dub) to create a gloomy, but very passionate sound which appealed to many fans left uninspired by the New Wave that arose in the wake of punk's collapse. Their sound proved very influential, inspiring or bringing attention to a whole wave of post-punk groups delving in the intense, gloomy style that would eventually come to be known as gothic rock. Bauhaus' sound, however, is often victim of its classification, as what is now considered "goth rock" has less in common with Bauhaus' music than Bauhaus had with other British post-punk groups. Its crucial elements were the innovative guitar playing of Daniel Ash and the dub-influenced bass of David J. Bauhaus remains one of the most popular groups of the genre.


Peter Murphy - vocals (occasionally keyboards and melodica in live performances)
Daniel Ash - guitar, saxophone, keyboards
David J - bass guitar, keyboards
Kevin Haskins - drums Band members


In the Flat Field (4AD) - 1980
Mask (Beggars Banquet) - 1981
The Sky's Gone Out (Beggars Banquet) - 1982
Burning from the Inside (Beggars Banquet) - 1983 Studio Albums

Press the Eject and Give Me the Tape (Beggars Banquet) - 1982
Rest in Peace: The Final Concert (Nemo/Beggars Banquet) - 1992
Gotham (Metropolis) - 1999 Live Albums

"Bela Lugosi's Dead" - (Small Wonder) 1979
"Dark Entries" - (4AD) 1980
"Terror Couple Kill Colonel" - (4AD) 1980
"Telegram Sam" - (T.Rex cover) - (4AD) 1980
"Kick in the Eye" - (Beggars Banquet) 1981 #59 UK
"The Passion of Lovers" - (Beggars Banquet) 1981 #56 UK
"Kick in the Eye (Searching for Satori E.P.)" - (Beggars Banquet) 1982 #45 UK
"Satori in Paris" - (4AD/New Rose) 1982
"A God in an Alcove" - (4AD/Flexi Pop) 1982
"Spirit" - (Beggars Banquet) 1982 #42 UK
"Ziggy Stardust" - (David Bowie cover) - (Beggars Banquet) 1982 #15 UK
"Lagartija Nick" - (Beggars Banquet) 1983 #44 UK
"She's in Parties" - (Beggars Banquet) 1983 #26 UK
"Sanity Assassin" - (Beggars Banquet) Limited fan club single only, 1983 Compilations

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Tuesday, August 21, 2007

Applied mathematics
Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with the mathematical techniques typically used in the application of mathematical knowledge to other domains.

Applied mathematics Divisions of applied mathematics
Historically, mathematics was most important in the natural sciences and engineering. However, in recent years, fields outside of the hard sciences have spawned the creation of new areas of mathematics, such as game theory, which grew out of economic considerations, or neural networks, which arose out of the study of the brain in neuroscience.
The advent of the computer has created new applications, both in studying and using the new computer technology itself (computer science, which uses combinatorics, formal logic, and lattice theory), as well as using computers to study problems arising in other areas of science (computational science), and of course studying the mathematics of computation (numerical analysis). Statistics is probably the most widespread application of mathematics in the social sciences, but other areas of math are proving increasingly useful in these disciplines, especially in economics and management science.

Sunday, August 19, 2007

Childhood and Education
After retirement Kovoor devoted his life to the rationalist movement. He spent most of his time building up the Ceylon Rationalist Association, and was elected in 1960 as its president, a title he retained until his death. He edited an annual journal, The Ceylon Rationalist Ambassador. In 1961 he traveled in Europe and established contact with the World Union of Freethinkers. Under the pseudonym Narcissus, he wrote newspaper and magazine articles about his encounters with the paranormal. These articles were translated and published in India, initially in Malayalam by Joseph Edamaruku (Kovoor's pseudonym 'Narcissus' was no longer used), and later in other Indian languages.
Kovoor traveled in India several times during 1960s and 1970s, addressing hundreds of meetings. His brilliant oratory, enlivened with a scientific approach and critical thinking, worked like magic in Indian villages and towns. During four Miracle Exposure lecture tours in India, all organized by the Indian Rationalist Association, Kovoor challenged and exposed 'miracles' performed by godmen. During his last journey to India in 1976 Kovoor visited Sai Baba's ashram and challenged him to face a test. The baba refused.
A controversy arose when Kovoor was awarded an honorary doctorate by the obscure (and now defunct) Minnesota Institute of Philosophy, calling itself the theological seminary of a "Church of Materialism." Kovoor had never visited the US. A strong critic of fake diplomas and doctorates used by charlatans, he later returned the honorary doctorate.
Abraham Thomas Kovoor died on September 18, 1978. "I am not afraid of death and life after death", he wrote in his will. "To set an example, I don't want a burial." He donated his eyes to an eye bank and his corpse to a medical college for anatomical study, with instructions that his skeleton eventually be given to the science laboratory of Thurston College. All of these wishes were honored.

As a rationalist
One of the main targets during his miracle exposure campaign was Sathya Sai Baba of Puttaparthi in Andhra Pradesh state, India. Sathya Sai Baba is perhaps the most prominent god-man in India today, and was during Kovoor's time. Sai Baba claims to this day to materialize vibuthi or holy ash. Kovoor believed that the Baba performed this through sleight of hand. Many Indians throng to the ashrams of holy men who claim to perform such miracles. To expose Sai Baba and others, Dr Kovoor would produce holy ash seemingly from nowhere and distributed it amongst the audience. He would then demonstrate to his audience the sleight of hand, explaining that after some practice, anybody could perform the feat .
Kovoor wrote repeatedly to Sai Baba, requesting a meeting to discuss the baba's miraculous powers. Upon receiving no response, Kovoor communicated his intention to come to one of Sathya Sai Baba's ashrams, at Whitefield near Bangalore. When Kovoor arrived, Sathya Sai Baba had gone to his other ashram at Puttaparthi.
He was an efficient hypnotherapist and applied psychologist. The famous Malayalam movie "Punarjanmam" and Tamil movie "Maru piravi" was made on basis of his case dairy.

Exposing the famous guru Sathya Sai Baba

Main article: Abraham Kovoor's challenge His publications and challenge

Books by and on Prof. Kovoor

Begone Godmen - Jaico Publishing House, Mumbai, India.
Gods, Demons and Spirits - Jaico Publishing House, Mumbai, India.
Selected Works of A T Kovoor- Indian Atheist Publishers, New Delhi, India.
Exposing Paranormal Claims - Indian CSICOP, Podannur, Tamil Nadu, India
Soul, Spiril, Rebirth & Possession - Indian CSICOP, Podannur, Tamil Nadu, India
On Christianity - Indian CSICOP, Podannur, Tamil Nadu, India
On Buddhism - Indian CSICOP, Podannur, Tamil Nadu, India
Astrology & Hinduism - Indian CSICOP, Podannur, Tamil Nadu, India In English

Te Dev Purush Har Gaye - Tarakbharti Parkashan, Barnala, Punjab, India.
Dev, Daint Te Ruhan - Tarakbharti Parkashan Abraham Kovoor In Hindi

Kovoorinte Sampoorna Kruthikal (Complete Works of Kovoor) - Translated by Joseph Edamaruku. Indian Atheist Publishers, New Delhi, India.
Kovoorinte Thiranjetutha Kruthikal (Selected Works of Kovoor) - Translated by Joseph Edamaruku. Prabhat Book House, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Samsarikkunna Kuthira (The Talking Horse) - Translated by Joseph Edamaruku. Current Books, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
Yukthivadam(Rationalism) - Translated by Joseph Edamaruku. Current Books, Thrissur, Kerala, India.
Anamarutha - Translated by Joseph Edamaruku. D C Books, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
Indriyatheetha Jnanavum Parapsychologiyum - Translated by Joseph Edamaruku. Indian Atheist Publishers, New Delhi, India.
Yukthichintha(Rational Thought) - Translated by Johnson Eyeroor. Current Books, Kottayam, Kerala, India. In Punjabi

Kora Iravukal, Veerakesari Publications,, Colombo
ManakolangkaL, Veerakesari Publications, Colombo

Saturday, August 18, 2007

The Island of Hawaiʻi (called the Big Island or Hawaiʻi Island) is a volcanic island in the Pacific Ocean and one of the eight main islands that compose the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi. Larger than all of the other Hawaiian Islands combined, Hawaiʻi is said to have been named for Hawaiʻiloa, the legendary Polynesian navigator who first discovered it. However, other accounts attribute the name to the legendary land or realm of Hawaiki, a place from which the Polynesians originated (see also Manua), the place where they go in the afterlife, the realm of the gods.
The Island of Hawaiʻi is administered under the County of Hawaiʻi. The county seat is Hilo. It is estimated that as of the year 2003, the island had a resident population of 158,400 persons.

Geology and geography
As of 2000, there were 148,677 people, 52,985 households, and 36,877 families residing in the county. The population density was 14/km² (37/mi²). There were 62,674 housing units at an average density of 6/km² (16/mi²). The racial makeup of the county was 31.55% White, 0.47% African American, 0.45% Native American, 26.70% Asian, 11.25% Pacific Islander, 1.14% from other races, and 28.44% from two or more races. 9.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 52,985 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.60% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a woman whose husband did not live with her, and 30.40% were non-families. 23.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.24.
In the county the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 26.00% from 45 to 64, and 13.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 100.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.70 males.

Sugarcane was the backbone of Hawaiʻi Island's economy for more than a century. In the mid-twentieth century, sugar plantations began to downsize and by 1996, the last sugar cane plantation had closed down.
Today, most of Hawaiʻi Island's economy is based on tourism, centered primarily on the leeward (kona) or western coast of the island in the North Kona and South Kohala districts. However, diversified agriculture is a growing sector of the economy of the island. Macadamia nuts, papaya, flowers, tropical and temperate vegetables, and coffee are all important crops. In fact, because of Hawaiʻi Island's reputation for growing beautiful orchids, the island has the nickname "The Orchid Isle." Cattle ranching is also important. The Big Island is home to one of the largest cattle ranches in the United States, Parker Ranch, which is situated on 175,000 acres in and around Kamuela. Astronomy is another industry, with numerous telescopes situated on Mauna Kea owing to the excellent clarity of the atmosphere at its summit and the lack of light pollution.

The Big Island is famous for its volcanoes. Kīlauea, the most active, has been erupting almost continuously for more than two decades.
At the coast where the lava meets the ocean, one can sometimes see billows of white steam rising from off the shoreline. At night, the lava lights up the steam to give an orange glow. When the molten lava makes contact with the ocean, the sea water turns into steam, and the sudden cooling of the lava causes the newly formed lava rocks to explode and crack into small pieces. The broken up lava is further ground into black sands along the shore by the ocean waves. Black sand beaches are common on the Big Island.

Hawaii (island) Tourist information

Akaka Falls; tallest waterfall on the island.
Amy B. H. Greenwell Ethnobotanical Garden
East Hawaiʻi Cultural Center
Hawaiʻi Tropical Botanical Garden
Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park; comprising the active volcanoes Kīlauea and Mauna Loa
Huliheʻe Palace; a royal palace in Kailua-Kona
Ka Lae, the southernmost point in the United States
Manuka State Wayside Park
Mauna Kea Observatory; Mauna Kea Observatories
Nani Mau Gardens
Onizuka Space Center; museum dedicated to the memory of Challenger astronaut Ellison Onizuka
Pacific Tsunami Museum overlooking Hilo Bay
Pua Mau Place Arboretum and Botanical Garden
Puʻuhonua O Hōnaunau National Historical Park
Sadie Seymour Botanical Gardens
University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo Botanical Gardens
World Botanical Gardens
Waipi'o Valley
Rainbow Falls State Park Places of interest

Captain Cook
Hawaiian Ocean View

  • Keaukaha
    Kailua-Kona (Kona)

    • Ainaloa
      Hawaiian Paradise Park
      Orchidlands Estates
      Kurtistown Cities and towns


      • North Kona
        South Kona

        • North Hilo
          South Hilo
          Kohala, Hawaii

          • North Kohala
            South Kohala Hawaii (island) Historic districts


            Hawaiʻi Community College