Sunday, September 30, 2007

Piet Dankert
Piet Dankert (January 8, 1934June 21, 2003) was a Dutch politician, a member of the Partij van de Arbeid.
He was first elected to the Tweede Kamer in 1968. There he was spokesman for foreign affairs and defence. In the late 1970s he moved to the European Parliament, and was President of the European Parliament from January 19, 1982 to July 24, 1984 [1].
In the third government of Ruud Lubbers (19891994) he was Secretary of State for European matters. He subsequently served a second period in the European Parliament, where he devoted himself to working for the accession of Turkey to the European Union.

Saturday, September 29, 2007

Soccer Bowl
The Soccer Bowl was the championship game of the North American Soccer League from 1974 to 1983. This event was tagged by NASL Commissioner Phil Woosnam who was trying to build a neutral-site championship event in the mold of the NFL's Super Bowl
Unlike the Super Bowl, the game was not denoted by Roman Numerals but the last two digits of the year would be used to denote what game it was.
As they hit financial problems, 1984 (in what would be the league's final year) saw the NASL abandon the neutral-site format for a Best of 3 series played at each team's home field.

Friday, September 28, 2007

Thomas John Watson, Sr. (February 17, 1874June 19, 1956) was the president of International Business Machines (IBM), who oversaw that company's growth into an international force from the 1920s to the 1950s. Watson developed IBM's effective management style and turned it into one of the most effective selling organizations yet seen, based largely around punched card tabulating machines. A leading self-made industrialist, he was one of the richest men of his time and was called the world's greatest salesman when he died in 1956.

Early life and career
Watson had a newly acquired NCR cash register in his butcher shop, for which he had to arrange new repayments. On visiting NCR he determined to join the company; and after a number of abortive attempts he finally succeeded. Led by John Patterson, NCR was then one of the leading selling organizations, and John J. Range, its Buffalo branch manager, became almost a father figure for Watson and was a model for his sales and management style. Certainly in later years, in a 1952 interview, he claimed he learned more from Range than anyone else. But at first he was a poor salesman, until Range took him personally in hand. Then he became the most successful salesman in the East, earning $100 per week. In 1899, at the age of 25, Watson was rewarded with the NCR agency for Rochester, one of NCR's smaller branches. As an agent he got 35% commission. As a result of these techniques, which largely revolved around knocking the main competitor (Hallwood), in four years Watson made Rochester effectively an NCR monopoly. As a reward he was called to the NCR head office in Dayton, Ohio, U.S..

Thomas J. Watson NCR
Watson's role in the scheme of things then was to knock out the competition in the used cash register market. It was made less legal by the chosen means. Using funds allegedly supplied by NCR he set up what was ostensibly a completely independent organization, Watson's Cash Register and Second Hand Exchange, in Manhattan. Undercutting the competition, for he had no need to make a profit (having effectively limitless funds from NCR), he gradually monopolized the business; until he was able to buy out the competitors, which he promptly did. He then moved on to Philadelphia and after that progressed across the country, repeating the operation and covertly establishing another near monopoly for NCR, in the second-hand business, to match that already established in the new machine market.
In 1908, when the second-hand business was merged into the regular sales offices, Watson became assistant sales manager; moving up to become sales manager in 1910 with a further role - working along with NCR's engineers - in new product development.
In terms of the questionable second-hand business, Watson later claimed that he didn't appreciate the implications of what he was doing, and indeed it is quite possible that he was so immersed in the work that he failed to understand the full depth of Patterson's machinations. Nevertheless it was a clear, indeed blatant, breach of the anti‑trust legislation; though until that time such legislation had, in the spirit of the age, been more honored in the breach rather than by adherence. Perhaps he was unlucky, but along with 30 other NCR managers (including Patterson) on 22nd February 1912 he was indicted in an anti‑trust suit instigated by managers previously.
In the six months before his trial he met his wife to be, Jeanette Kittredge. He married her just two weeks after the trial finished on February 13th 1913; he having been found guilty and sentenced to a $5,000 fine plus a year in Miami County jail. The jail sentence was unexpected, previously only fines had been imposed; and the sentence was appealed.

Antitrust affair
Watson joined the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation (CTR) on May 1, 1914. When Watson took over as general manager, the company had fewer than 400 employees. In 1924, he renamed the company International Business Machines. Watson built IBM into such a powerful force that the federal government filed a civil antitrust suit against them in 1952. IBM owned and leased more than 90 percent of all tabulating machines in the United States at the time.
Throughout his life, Watson maintained a deep interest in international relations. He was known as President Roosevelt's un-official Ambassador in NY and often entertained foreign statesman. In 1937 he was elected president of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and at that years biennial congress in Berlin stated the conference keynote to be World Peace Through World Trade. Watson has been one of the few CEO's to develop such a policy.
Watson worked with other local leaders to create a college in the Binghamton area, where IBM had major plants. In 1946 IBM provided land and funding for Triple Cities College, an extension of Syracuse University. Eventually it became part of Binghamton University. Its School of Engineering and Applied Sciences is named the Thomas J. Watson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
Watson was named chairman emeritus of IBM in 1956. A month before his death, Watson handed over the reins of the company to his oldest son, Thomas J. Watson, Jr.

Head of IBM
Watson married Jeanette Kittredge, from a prominent Dayton, Ohio railroad family, on April 17, 1913. They had two sons and two daughters.
As a Democrat (after his criminal indictment by the Taft Administration) Watson was an ardent supporter of Roosevelt. He was considered Roosevelt's strongest supporter in the business community.
The US Supreme Court, in 1936, upheld the lower court decision that IBM, together with Remington, should cease its practice of requiring its customers to buy their cards from it alone. In the event it made little difference because IBM was the only effective supplier to the market; and profits continued undiminished.
As a powerful trustee of Columbia University (June 6 1933–death) Watson played the central role in convincing Dwight D. Eisenhower to become president of the school.
Was Chairman of the Elmira College Centennial Committee in 1955 and gave Watson Hall, primarily a music and mathematics academic building.

Thomas J. Watson, Jr., succeeded his father as IBM chairman and later served as Ambassador to the Soviet Union under Jimmy Carter.
Jeanette Watson Irwin married businessman John N. Irwin, later Ambassador to France
Helen Watson Buckner became an important philanthropist in New York City.
Arthur K. Watson served as president of IBM World Trade Corporation and later as Ambassador to France. Famous quote

Watson, Thomas J. (1934). Men-Minutes-Money A collection of excerpts from talks and messages delivered and written at various times. International Business Machines. 
Watson, Thomas J. (1954). As a Man Thinks...: the Man and His Philosophy of Life as Expressed in His Editorials. International Business Machines. 
Maney, Kevin (2003). The Maverick and His Machine: Thomas Watson, Sr. and the Making of IBM. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-41463-8 .
William H. Rodgers. Think; A Biography of the Watsons and IBM (1969).
Robert Sobel Thomas Watson, Sr.: IBM and the Computer Revolution (1981).
Richard S. Tedlow. The Watson Dynasty: The Fiery Reign and Troubled Legacy of IBM's Founding Father and Son. (2003)
Thomas J. Watson. Father, Son & Co.: My Life at IBM and Beyond. (1990)

Thursday, September 27, 2007

Martin Denny
The following is a list of the Governors of the State of Montana.

Prior to becoming a territory, Montana was part of Idaho Territory; see List of Governors of Idaho. Governor of Montana List of Governors

This is a table of the higher federal offices and other governorships held by governors. All representatives and senators represented Montana. * denotes offices that the governor resigned to take.

Wednesday, September 26, 2007

Extensive Records of the Taiping Era
The Extensive Records of the Taiping Era (Traditional Chinese: 太平廣記; pinyin: Tàipíng Guǎngjì) is a collection of stories compiled under the editorship of Li Fang, first published in 978. The book is divided into 500 volumes (juan 卷) and consists of about 3 million words (or, Chinese characters). It is a collection of about seven thousand stories that were selected from over three hundred books and novels from the Han Dynasty to the early Song Dynasty, many of which have long been lost. Some stories are historical or naturalistic anecdotes, each is replete with a historical elements, and qualify as fiction, but the topics are mostly supernatural, about Buddhist and Daoist priests, immortals, ghosts, and various deities. They include a number of Tang stories that are famous works of literature in their own right, and also inspired later works.

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

George W. Crawford
George Walker Crawford (December 22, 1798July 27, 1872) was a Georgia politician during the nineteenth century. He served as the Governor of Georgia from 1843 to 1847 and United States Secretary of War 1849 to 1850. He is the cousin of William H. Crawford

Early life
Georgia Governor John Forsyth appointed Crawford attorney general of Georgia in 1827. The next year, Crawford challenged congressman Thomas E. Burnside to a duel over a series of accusations that Burnside published about Crawford's father. He shot Burnside dead, thus winning the fight. It did not affect his career and he continued to serve as attorney general until 1831.

He was elected Governor of Georgia, defeating Mark Anthony Cooper, becoming the only Whig to served a Georgia state governor. As governor, he helped expand the Western and Atlantic Railroad, redraw congressional maps and establish the Supreme Court of Georgia. He also focused on dismantling the Georgia Central Bank and reformed the state penitentiary to make it a more economically sound institution. In 1845, he won a second term.

Secretary of War
In 1861, Crawford was elected to represent Richmond County, Georgia in the Georgia State Secession Convention. Delegates selected Crawford as chairman for the proceedings and he oversaw the vote of secession. He died at his estate, located in the village of "Bel Air," near Augusta, Georgia on July 27, 1872. He was buried in the Summerville Cemetery located in Augusta.

Monday, September 24, 2007

Nicke Royale
Nicke Andersson (also known as Nicke Royale), born August 1, 1972, is the lead singer/guitarist/songwriter of the Swedish rock n' roll band The Hellacopters. He also played drums in a soul orientated project with Scott Morgan from Sonic's Rendezvous Band called The Solution.
In the past, he has played guitar in The Hydromatics and Supershit 666, a project with Backyard Babies' guitarist Dregen and The Wildhearts' vocalist Ginger, played drums and wrote songs in the Swedish death metal band Entombed, released a solo EP on Nomad/Fandango Records, and singles on the Swedish label Wild Kingdom under the name of the Nick Royale Gang.
In late 2005 Nicke Andersson produced Swedish rockband Dollhouse in Acetone Studio, Stockholm. The recording session resulted in the second album by Dollhouse titled "The Royal Rendezvous".
Most recently, Andersson has released what is touted as an "old school death metal" side project called Death Breath on Relapse Records.

Sunday, September 23, 2007

This article is about the river in Western Russia. For other rivers with the same name, see Don River (disambiguation).
The Don (Russian: Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 km southeast from Tula, southeast of Moscow, and flows for a distance of about 1,950 km (1,220 miles) to the Sea of Azov.
From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh, then southwest to its mouth. The main city on the river is Rostov on Don, its main tributary, the Donets.

Views of Don River
Don River near khutor Kalininsky in Rostov Oblast (photo 2002).
Eagle statue, Don River and stanitsa Veshenskaya in Rostov Oblast (photo 2002).
Don River near Yelets in Lipetsk Oblast (photo 2001).
Don River near Yelets in Lipetsk Oblast (photo 2001).
Don River near stanitsa Veshenskaya in Rostov Oblast (photo 2002).
Don River, Russia Don River near village Kalininsky in Rostov Oblast (photo 2002)

Saturday, September 22, 2007

Frank Whittle
Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE, FRS, Hon FRAeS (1 June 19079 August 1996) was an English Royal Air Force officer and is seen as the father of jet propulsion. By the end of the war, Whittle's efforts resulted in engines that would lead the world in performance through the end of the decade. Whittle and Hans von Ohain met after the war and initially Whittle was angry with him as he felt Ohain had stolen his ideas. Ohain eventually convinced him that his work was independent and after that point the two became good friends.

Early life
Whittle continued working on the motorjet principle after his thesis work and eventually abandoned it when further calculations showed it would weigh as much as a conventional engine of the same thrust. While thinking about the idea he thought "Why not substitute a turbine for the piston engine?" Instead of using a piston engine to provide the compressed air for the burner, a turbine could be used to extract some power from the exhaust and power a compressor, like those used for superchargers. The leftover exhaust thrust would power the aircraft.
Earlier, in July 1926, A. A. Griffith published a paper on compressors and turbines, which he had been studying at the RAE. He showed that such designs up to this point had been flying "stalled", and that by making the compressor blades into an aerofoil shape, their efficiency could be dramatically improved. The paper went on to describe how the increased efficiency of these sorts of compressors and turbines would allow a jet engine to be produced, although he felt the idea was impractical, and instead suggested using the power as a turboprop. At the time most superchargers used a centrifugal compressor, so there was limited interest in the paper.
In late 1929 Whittle sent his concept to the Air Ministry to see if it would be any interest. With little knowledge of the topic they turned to the only other person who had written on the subject and passed the paper on to Griffith. Griffith appears to have been convinced that Whittle's "simple" design could never achieve the sorts of efficiencies needed for a practical engine. After pointing out an error in one of Whittle's calculations, he went on to comment that the centrifugal design would be too large for aircraft use and that using the jet directly for power would be rather inefficient. The RAF returned comment to Whittle, where they referred to the design as "impracticable."
Others in the RAF were not so sure. In particular Johnny Johnson convinced him to patent the idea in January 1930. Since the RAF was not interested in the concept they did not declare it secret, which meant that Whittle was able to retain the rights to the idea, which would have otherwise been the property of the RAF. This rejection would later turn out to be a stroke of luck.
Meanwhile Whittle moved onto the Officers' Engineering Course at RAF Henlow, Bedfordshire in 1932 and then to Peterhouse, Cambridge in 1934, graduating in 1936 with a First in the Mechanical Sciences Tripos.

Development of the jet engine
Whittle's jet engine patent lapsed in 1935 because he could not afford the renewal fee of £5. Soon after this he was approached by two ex-RAF men, Rolf Dudley-Williams and J. Tinling, who wanted to expand the development of his engine. The three incorporated as Power Jets Ltd. in 1936 with a bank loan of £2,000. Work was started on an experimental engine at a factory in Rugby, Warwickshire belonging to British Thomson-Houston, a steam turbine company. The RAF still saw no value in the effort but although Whittle was still a pilot they placed him on the Special Duty List and agreed to allow him to work on the design as long as it took no more than six hours a week.
Funding development of the first engine, known as the WU (Whittle Unit) was a serious problem. Although privately funded, most potential investors shied from a project that appeared to be semi-secret yet had no RAF (Royal Air Force) backing. Something seemed to be amiss; if the project was going to work, why didn't the RAF fund it? Once again it seemed not everyone was so sceptical of Whittle's ideas and in October 1936 Henry Tizard, the rector of Imperial College London and chairman of the Aeronautical Research Committee, sent details of Whittle's engine to Griffith once again. Griffith had by this time started construction of his own engine design; perhaps in order to avoid tainting his efforts, he returned a much more positive review. He remained highly critical of some features, notably the use of jet thrust, seemingly ignoring the fact that its performance at high speed and altitude was the crucial aspect of the programme.
Even with these problems Power Jets were able to complete the WU, which ran successfully on April 12, 1937. Tizard pronounced it "streets ahead" of any other advanced engine he had seen and managed to interest the Air Ministry enough to fund development with a contract for £6,000 to develop a flyable version. Nevertheless it was a year before all of the funds were available, greatly delaying development.
Meanwhile testing continued with the WU, which showed an alarming tendency to race out of control. Due to the dangerous nature of the work being carried out, in 1938 development was largely moved from Rugby to the BTH's semi-disused Ladywood foundry at nearby Lutterworth in Leicestershire. There was a successful run of the WU there in March 1938. Although the potential of the engine was obvious, the Air Ministry remained focused on the production of piston engine designs.
All of these delays and the lack of funding slowed the project. In Germany, Hans von Ohain had started work on a prototype in 1935 and had by this point passed the prototype stage and was building the first flyable design, the Heinkel HeS 3. There is little reason to believe that Whittle's efforts would not have been at the same level or more advanced had the Air Ministry taken a greater interest in the design. When the war started in September 1939, Power Jets had a payroll of only 10 and Griffith's efforts at the RAE and Metropolitan Vickers were similarly small.
The stress of the continual on-again-off-again development and problems with the engine had a serious toll on Whittle. He suffered from stress-related ailments such as eczema and heart palpitations, while his weight dropped to 9 stone (126 pounds/57 kg). In order to keep to his sixteen-hour workdays, he sniffed Benzedrine during the day and then took tranquilizers and sleeping pills at night to offset the effects and allow him to sleep. Over this period he became irritable and developed an "explosive" temper.
Following the outbreak of World War II the Air Ministry changed priorities and once again looked at the various advanced projects underway. By 1939, Power Jets could barely afford to keep the lights on when yet another visit was made by Air Ministry personnel. This time Whittle was able to run the WU at high power for 20 minutes without any difficulty. One of the members of the team was the Director of Scientific Research, H. E. Wimperis, who walked out of the demonstration utterly convinced of the importance of the project.
A contract for full-scale development was immediately sent to Power Jets, along with a number of tenders to various companies to set up production lines for up to 3,000 engines a month in 1942. Power Jets had no manufacturing capability, so the Air Ministry offered shared production and development contracts with BTH, Vauxhall and Rover. However, the contract was eventually taken up by Rover only. They also sent out a contract for a simple airframe to carry the engine, which was quickly taken up by Gloster.
Whittle had already studied the problem of turning the massive WU into a flyable design and with the new contract work started in earnest on the "Whittle Supercharger Type W.1." However, Rover was unable to deliver the W.1 production engine before Gloster's experimental airframe was ready. Whittle then cobbled together an engine built from various test parts and called it the W.1X, which ran for the first time on December 14 1940. This engine powered the Gloster E.28/39 for taxi testing when it took to the air for a short hop on April 7 1941.
Film of the early secret E.28 tests exists. It illustrates the vivid memories of ordinary folk living nearby who were interviewed by the BBC a decade later. They recall their amazement that an aeroplane could fly with no propellers and the questions is raised in local pubs at the time: how could it possibly work? Did the mystery aircraft somehow suck itself through the air like a supercharged vacuum cleaner? It was difficult for laypeople still used to conventional aircraft to imagine that jet propulsion could work.
The "full" W.1 of 3.8 kN (850 lbf) thrust ran on April 12, 1941 and on May 15, 1941 the W.1-powered E.28/39 took off from Cranwell at 7.40 pm, flying for seventeen minutes and reaching a maximum speed of around 545 km/h (340 mph). Within days it was reaching 600 km/h (370 mph) at 7,600 metres, exceeding the performance of the contemporary Spitfires, astounding considering this was the first such engine. Success of the design was now evident to all and nearly every engine company in England started their own crash efforts to catch up with Power Jets.
A newer design known as the W.2 was then started. Like the W.1 it featured a "reverse flow" design of the burners, in which the heated air from the flame cans was piped back towards the front of the engine before entering the turbine area. This allowed the engine to be "folded", with the flame cans lying around the turbine area, and therefore making for a shorter engine.
Power Jets also spent some time in May 1940 drawing up the W.2Y, a similar design with a "straight through" airflow that resulted in a longer engine and (more critically) driveshaft but with a somewhat simpler layout. In order to reduce the weight of the driveshaft as much as possible, the W.2Y used a large cylindrical shaft almost as large as the turbine disk, "necked down" at either end where it connected to the turbine and compressor.
The Air Ministry was eager to obtain an operational jet aircraft and authorised BTH to press ahead with a twin-engined jet interceptor, which would evolve into the Gloster Meteor. The Meteor was intended to use either the W.2 or the similar Halford H.1 (later named "Goblin") but de Havilland later decided to keep all the Halfords for their design, the de Havilland Vampire.

Power jets
In 1941 Rover set up a new laboratory for Whittle's team along with a production line at their disused Barnoldswick factory but they also set up a parallel effort with their own engineers at Waterloo Mill, Clitheroe. Here Adrian Lombard attempted to develop the W.2 into a production quality design, dispensing with Whittle's "reverse flow" burners and developing a longer but simpler "straight-through" engine instead. Work at Barnoldswick continued on Whittle's original design, now known as the W.2B/23, while Lombard's new design became the W.2B/26. Whittle was upset by this course of events, feeling that all work should concentrate on producing a single design as soon as possible.
By late 1941 it was obvious to all that the arrangement between Power Jets and Rover was not working. Whittle was frustrated by Rover's inability to deliver production-quality parts, as well as with their "we know better than you" attitude and became increasingly vocal. Rover was losing interest in the project after the delays and constant harassment from Power Jets.

In 1940, Stanley Hooker of Rolls-Royce had met with Whittle and later introduced him to Rolls' CEO, Ernest Hives. Hooker led Rolls' supercharger division, which was naturally suited to jet engine work. Hives agreed to supply key parts to help the project and it was Rolls engineers who helped solve the surging problems seen in the early engines. In early 1942 Whittle contracted Rolls for six engines as well, known as the WR.1, identical to the existing W.1.
The problems at Rover became a "public secret" and eventually Spencer Wilkes of Rover met with Hives and Hooker at the Swan and Royal pub near the Barnoldswick factory. They decided to trade the jet factory at Barnoldswick for Rolls' tank engine factory in Nottingham. A handshake sealed the deal. The handover took place on January 1 1943, although the official date was later. Rolls soon closed Rover's parallel plant at Clitheroe, although they continued development of the W.2B/26 that had been developed there.
Testing and production was immediately stepped up. In December Rover had tested the W.2B for a total of 37 hours but within the next month Rolls-Royce tested it for 390 hours. The W.2B passed its first 100 hour test at full performance of 725 kgf (7.11 kN) on May 7, 1943. The prototype Meteor airframe was already complete and took to the air on June 12, 1943. Production versions started rolling off the line in October, first known as the W.2B/23, then the RB.23 (for Rolls-Barnoldswick) and eventually the Rolls-Royce Welland. Barnoldswick was too small for full-scale production and turned back into a pure research facility under Hooker, while a new factory was set up in Newcastle-under-Lyme. The W.2B/26, as the Rolls-Royce Derwent, opened the new line and soon replaced the Welland, allowing the production lines at Barnoldswick to shut down in late 1944.
Despite lengthy delays (Hitler initially demanded the Me 262 be a bomber), the Luftwaffe beat the British efforts into the air by nine months, which in turn, had also been delayed at Rover. Since their German counterparts were forced to deal with a serious shortage of high temperature alloys, the Junker engines (axial-flow designed by Dr. Anselm Franz) would typically last 10-25 hours (longer with an experienced pilot) and sometimes exploded on their first startup. Thus the engines that powered the Meteor were much more reliable by comparison. The equivalent British engine would run for 150 hours between overhauls and had twice the power-to-weight ratio and half the specific fuel consumption. By the end of the war every major engine company in Britain was working on jet designs based on the Whittle pattern or licensed outright. The Korean war saw US F-86 Sabres using an axial flow engine inspired by Dr. Franz's design doing battle with Soviet made MiG-15s using a copy of the Rolls-Royce Nene engine. By the late 1950s though, most engines powering US and USSR fighters were no longer descended from Whittle's work but used rather, engines based on the axial flow design.

With the W.2 proceeding smoothly, Whittle was sent to Boston, Massachusetts in mid-1942 to help the General Electric jet programme. GE, the primary supplier of turbochargers in the US, was well suited to quickly starting jet production. A combination of the W.2B design and a simple airframe from Bell Aircraft flew in autumn of 1942 as the Bell XP-59A Airacomet.
Whittle's developments at Power Jets continued, resulting in the improved W.2/500 and later the W.2/700. Both were fitted for testing on Meteors, the W.2/700 later being fitted with an afterburner ("reheat" in British terminology), as well as experimental water-injection to cool the engine and allow for higher power settings without melting the turbine. Whittle also turned his attention to the axial-flow championed by Griffith, designing the L.R.1. Other developments included the use of fans to provide more mass-flow, either at the front of the engine as in a modern turbofan or at the rear, which is much less common but somewhat simpler.
Whittle's work had caused a minor revolution within the British engine manufacturing industry and even before the E.28/39 flew most companies had set up their own research efforts. In 1939, Metropolitan-Vickers set up a project to develop an axial-flow design as a turboprop but later re-engineered the design as a pure jet known as the Metrovick F.2. Rolls-Royce had already copied the W.1 to produce the low-rated WR.1 but later stopped work on this project after taking over Rover's efforts. de Havilland started a jet fighter project in 1941, the Spider Crab—later called Vampire—along with their own engine to power it: Frank Halford's Goblin (Halford H.1). Armstrong Siddeley also developed an axial-flow design, the ASX but reversed Vickers' thinking and later modified it into a turboprop instead, the Python.
With practically every engine company producing their own designs, Power Jets was no longer able to generate realistic income. In April 1944 Power Jets was nationalised, becoming the National Gas Turbine Establishment at the original Ladywood experimental site. In 1946 it was reorganised with the RAE divisions joining them.

Frank Whittle Continued development
Whittle, disenfranchised, quit what was left of Power Jets in 1948. Long a socialist, his experiences with nationalisation changed his mind and he later campaigned for the Conservative Party (especially for his friend Dudley Williams, who was Managing Director of Power Jets and became Conservative Member of Parliament for Exeter. He also retired from the RAF, complaining of ill health, leaving with the rank of Air Commodore. Shortly afterwards he received £100,000 from the Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors, partly to pay him for turning over all of his shares of Power Jets when it was nationalised. He was made a Knight of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) in that same year.
He soon joined BOAC as a technical advisor on aircraft gas turbines. He travelled extensively over the next few years, viewing jet engine developments in USA, Canada, Africa, Asia and the Middle East. He left BOAC in 1952 and spent the next year working on a biography, Jet: The Story of a Pioneer. He was awarded the Royal Society of Arts' Albert Medal that year.
Returning to work in 1953, he accepted a position as a Mechanical Engineering Specialist in one of Shell Oil's subsidiaries. Here he developed a new type of drill that was self-powered by a turbine running on the mud pumped into the hole that was used as a lubricant during drilling. Normally a well is drilled by attaching rigid sections of pipe together and powering the cutting head by spinning the pipe but Whittle's design meant that the drill had no strong mechanical connection to the head frame, allowing for much lighter piping to be used.
Whittle left Shell in 1957 but the project was picked up in 1961 by Bristol Siddeley Engines, who set up Bristol Siddeley Whittle Tools to further develop the concept. In 1966 Rolls Royce purchased Bristol Siddeley but the financial pressures and eventual bankruptcy due to cost overruns of the RB211 project led to the slow wind-down and eventual disappearance of Whittle's "turbo-drill". The design would eventually appear only in the late 1990s, when it was combined with continuous coiled pipe to allow uninterrupted drilling at any angle. The "continuous-coil drilling" can drill straight down into a pocket of oil and then sideways through the pocket to allow the oil to flow out faster.
In 1976 Whittle emigrated to the US and the next year he accepted the position of NAVAIR Research Professor at the US Naval Academy Annapolis. His research concentrated on the boundary layer before his professorship became part-time from 1978 to 1979. The part time post enabled him to write a textbook on gas turbine thermodynamics. It was at this time that he met von Ohain, who was working at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. At first upset because he believed von Ohain had developed his engine after seeing Whittle's patent, he eventually became convinced that von Ohain's development was his own. The two became good friends and often toured the US giving talks together. In 1991 von Ohain and Whittle were awarded the Charles Stark Draper Prize for their work on turbojet engines.

After the War
Frank Whittle married Dorothy Lee in May 1930 and they had two sons. While at Cranwell he lodged in a bungalow at Dorrington. The marriage was dissolved in 1976 and Whittle re-married to Hazel Hall. He died on 8 August, 1996 of lung cancer, at his home in Columbia, Maryland, USA.

Later life


The "Whittle Arch" statue is a large double wing-like structure situated outside the Coventry Transport Museum, in Millennium Place, Coventry, England.

The Whittle Arches in Coventry

Friday, September 21, 2007

Norman Geisler
Norman L. Geisler (b. 1932) is a Christian apologist and the co-founder and Dean of Southern Evangelical Seminary outside Charlotte, North Carolina. He has taught at the university and graduate level for fifty years and has spoken or debated in all fifty states and in twenty-five countries. He holds a Ph.D. in philosophy from Loyola University.
Geisler is best known for his scholarly contributions to the subjects of Christian apologetics, philosophy, and moderate Calvinism and is author, coauthor, or editor of over sixty books and hundreds of articles. He is regarded as one of the foremost living Protestant Thomistic (or classical) apologists of the Christian religion.

Norman Geisler Publications
Books authored or co-authored:

General Introduction to the Bible (Moody Press, 1968; revised and expanded, 1986);
Ethics: Alternatives and Issues (Zondervan, 1971);
The Christian Ethic of Love (Zondervan, 1973);
Philosophy of Religion (Zondervan, 1974; revised 1988);
From God to Us (Moody Press, 1974);
To Understand the Bible--Look for Jesus (Moody Press, 1975);
Christian Apologetics (Baker Book House, 1976);
A Popular Survey of the Old Testament (Baker Book House, 1977);
The Roots of Evil (Zondervan, 1978);
Inerrancy (Zondervan, 1979);
Introduction to Philosophy: A Christian Perspective (Baker, 1980);
Options in Contemporary Christian Ethics (Baker Book House, 1981);
Biblical Errancy: Its Philosophical Roots (Zondervan, 1981);
Decide for Yourself: How History Views the Bible (Zondervan, 1982):
The Creator in the Courtroom--Scopes II (co-author, Baker, 1982);
What Augustine Says (Baker Book House, 1982);
Is Man the Measure? (Baker Book House, 1983);
Cosmos: Carl Sagan's Religion for the Scientific Mind (Quest Publications, 1983);
Religion of the Force (Quest, 1983);
To Drink or Not to Drink: A Sober Look at the Problem (Quest, 1984);
Perspectives: Understanding and Evaluating Today's World Views (Here's Life Publications, 1984);
Video Series: Christianity Under Attack, in 6 parts (Quest, 1985); also in book: Christianity Under Attack (Quest, 1985);
False Gods of Our Time (Harvest House, 1985);
Reincarnation Sensation (Tyndale, 1986);
Origin Science (Baker, 1987);
Signs and Wonders (Tyndale, 1988);
World's Apart (Baker 1989);
Knowing The Truth About Creation (Servant, 1989);
The Infiltration of the New Age (Tyndale, 1989);
The Battle for the Resurrection (Thomas Nelson, 1989);
Apologetics in the New Age (Baker, 1990);
Come Let Us Reason: An Introduction to Logical Thinking (Baker, 1990);
Gambling: A Bad Bet (Fleming H. Revell, 1990);
The Life and Death Debate (Greenwood, 1990);
In Defense of the Resurrection (Quest, 1991);
Thomas Aquinas: An Evangelical Appraisal (1991);
Matters of Life and Death: Calm Answers to Tough Questions about Abortion and Euthanasia (Baker, 1991);
Miracles and the Modern Mind: A Defense of Biblical Miracles (Baker, 1991);
When Critics Ask: A Handbook on Bible Difficulties (Victor, 1992);
Miracles and the Modern Mind: A Defense of Biblical Miracles (Baker, 1992);
Answering Islam (Baker, 1993);
Roman Catholics and Evangelicals (1995);
Love Is Always Right (Word, 1996);
Creating God in the Image of Man? (Bethany House, 1997);
When Cultists Ask (Baker, 1997);
The Counterfeit Gospel of Mormonism (Harvest House, 1998);
Legislating Morality (Bethany House, 1998);
Baker's Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics (Baker, 1999);
Chosen But Free (Bethany, 1999);
Unshakable Foundations (Bethany, 2001);
Why I Am a Christian (Baker, 2001);
Battle for God (Kregel, 2001);
Living Loud: Defending Your Faith (Broadman & Holman, 2002);
Systematic Theology, Vol. 1 (Introduction – Bible) (Bethany, 2002); Vol. 2 (God - Creation) (Bethany, 2003); Vol. 3 (Sin - Salvation) (Bethany, 2004); Vol. 4 (Church - Last Things) (Bethany, 2005);
I Don't Have Enough Faith to Be an Atheist (Crossway, 2004);
Is Your Church Ready? (Zondervan, 2003);
Who Made God? (Zondervan, 2003);
Bringing Your Faith To Work (Baker, 2005);
Correcting The Cults (Baker, 2005).
Love Your Neighbor (Crossway, 2007).

Thursday, September 20, 2007

Differently abled
A disability is a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or their group. The term is often used to refer to individual functioning, including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual impairment or mental health issue. This usage is associated with a medical model of disability. By contrast, a human rights or social model focuses on functioning as an interaction between a person and their environment, highlighting the role of a society in labelling, causing or maintaining disability within that society, including through attitudes or accessibility favoring the majority. Disabilities may come to people during their life or people may be born disabled.
Common usage refers to 'a person with a disability' or a person who is 'disabled' or, more controversially, who is 'handicapped', 'differently abled', 'retarded', 'lame', 'handi-capable' or a 'cripple'. Some prefer to only refer to specific 'disabilities' rather than to a generalized sense of 'disability'.
On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally agreed on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the first human rights treaty of the 21st century, to protect and enhance the rights and opportunities of the world's estimated 650 million disabled people. Countries that sign up to the convention will be required to adopt national laws, and remove old ones, so that persons with disabilities would, for example, have equal rights to education, employment, and cultural life; the right to own and inherit property; not be discriminated against in marriage, children, etc; not be unwilling subjects in medical experiments.
In 1976, the United Nations launched its International Year for Disabled Persons (1981), later re-named the International Year of Disabled Persons. The UN Decade of Disabled Persons (1983-1993) featured a World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons. In 1979, Frank Bowe was the only person with a disability representing any country in the planning of IYDP-1981. Today, many countries have named representatives who are themselves individuals with disabilities. The decade was closed in an address before the General Assembly by Robert Davila. Both Bowe and Davila are deaf. In 1984, UNESCO accepted sign language for use in education of deaf children and youth.

The Disability rights movement

Main article: Disabled sports Adapted sports
Current issues and debates surrounding 'disability' include social and political rights, social inclusion and citizenship. In developed countries the debate has moved beyond a concern about the perceived cost of maintaining dependent people with a disability to the struggle to find effective ways of ensuring people with a disability can participate in and contribute to society in all spheres of life. Many are concerned, however, that the greatest need is in developing nations -- where the vast bulk of the estimated 650 million persons with disabilities reside. A great deal of work -- from basic physical accessibility through education to self-empowerment and self-supporting employment -- is needed. In the past few years, disability rights activists have also focused on obtaining full sexual citizenship for the disabled.

Current issues
The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), produced by the World Health Organization, distinguishes between body functions (physiological or psychological, e.g. vision) and body structures (anatomical parts, e.g. the eye and related structures). Impairment in bodily structure or function is defined as involving an anomaly, defect, loss or other significant deviation from certain generally accepted population standards, which may fluctuate over time. Activity is defined as the execution of a task or action. The ICF lists 9 broad domains of functioning which can be affected:
(see also List of disabilities)
The introduction to the ICF states that a variety of conceptual models has been proposed to understand and explain disability and functioning, which it seeks to integrate:

Learning and applying knowledge
General tasks and demands
Domestic life
Interpersonal interactions and relationships
Major life areas
Community, social and civic life. Definitions and Models

Main article: Medical model of disability The medical model

Main article: Social model of disability The social model

The moral model (Bowe, 1978) refers to the attitude that people are morally responsible for their own disability, including, at one extreme, as a result of bad actions of parents if congenital, or as a result of practicing witchcraft if not. This attitude can be seen as a religious fundamentalist offshoot of the original animal roots of human beings, back when humans killed any baby that could not survive on its own in the wild (see Darwinism).
The Expert/Professional Model has provided a traditional response to disability issues and can be seen as an offshoot of the Medical Model. Within its framework, professionals follow a process of identifying the impairment and its limitations (using the Medical Model), and taking the necessary action to improve the position of the disabled person. This has tended to produce a system in which an authoritarian, over-active service provider prescribes and acts for a passive client.
The Tragedy/Charity Model depicts disabled people as victims of circumstance, deserving of pity. This and Medical Model are probably the ones most used by non-disabled people to define and explain disability. To counter this trend, disabled activists are fond of the slogan "PISS ON PITY".
Social Adapted Model ; Other models

Government policies and support
Under the Disability Discrimination Act (1995, extended in 2005), it is unlawful for organisations to discriminate (treat a disabled person less favourably, for reasons related to the person's disability, without justification) in employment; access to goods, facilities, services; managing, buying or renting land or property; education. Businesses must make "reasonable adjustments" to their policies or practices, or physical aspects of their premises, to avoid indirect discrimination.[1]
A number of financial and care support services are available, including Incapacity Benefit and Disability Living Allowance[2].

United Kingdom

United States
The US Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requires all organizations that receive government funding to provide accessiblity programs and services. A more recent law, the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which came in to effect in 1992, prohibits private employers, state and local governments and employment agencies and labor unions from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities in job application procedures, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, job training, or in the terms, conditions and privileges of employment. This includes organizations like retail businesses, movie theaters, and restaurants. They must make "reasonable accommodation" to people with different needs. Protection is extended to anyone with (A) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual (B) a record of such an impairment or (C) being regarded as having such an impairment. The second and third critiera are seen as ensuring protection from unjust discrimination based on a perception of risk, just because someone has a record of impairment or appears to have a disability or illness (e.g. features which may be erroneously taken as signs of an illness).

Discrimination in employment
According to the 2000 U.S. Census, the African American community has the highest rate of disability at 24.3 percent. Although people have come to better understand and accept different types of disability, there still remains a stigma attached to the disabled community. African Americans with a disability are subject to not only this stigma but also to the additional forces of race discrimination. African American women who have a disibility face tremendous discrimination due to their condition, race, and gender. Doctor Eddie Glenn of Howard University describes this situation as the "triple jeopardy" syndrome.

African Americans and Disability
The US Social Security Administration defines disability in terms of inability to perform substantial gainful activity (SGA), by which it means "work paying minimum wage or better". The agency pairs SGA with a "listing" of medical conditions that qualify individuals for benefits.

Social administration
Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, special educational support is limited to children and youth falling in to one of a dozen disability categories (e.g., specific learning disability) and adds that, to be eligible, students must require both special education (modified instruction) and related services (supports such as speech and language pathology).


The demography of disability is difficult. Counting persons with disabilities is far more challenging than is counting males. That is because disability is not just a status condition, entirely contained within the individual. Rather, it is an interaction between medical status (say, having low vision or being blind) and the environment.

Estimates worldwide
Disability benefit, or disability pension, is a kind of support provided by government agencies to people who are unable to work due to a disability, temporarily or permanently. In the U.S., disability benefit is provided within the category of Supplemental Security Income, and in Canada, within the Canada Pension Plan. In other countries, disability benefit may be provided under Social Security system.
Costs of disability pensions are steadily growing in Western countries, mainly European and the United States. It was reported that in the UK, expenditure on disability pensions accounted for 0.9% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1980, but two decades later had reached 2.6% of GDP. A study by Denmark researchers suggests that information on self-reported days of sickness absence can be used to effectively identify future potential groups for disability pension. [3] These studies may provide useful information for policy makers, case managing authorities, employers, and physicians responsible for interventions aiming at reducing the cost and work disability.

Differently abled Disability Benefits and Cost
Assistive Technology (AT) is a generic term for devices and modifications (for a person or within a society) that help overcome or remove a disability. The first recorded example of the use of a prosthesis dates to at least 1800 BC. A more recent notable example is the wheelchair, dating from the 17th Century. The curb cut is a related structural innovation. Other modern examples are standing frames, text telephones, accessible keyboards, large print, Braille, & speech recognition Computer software. Individuals with disabilities often develop personal or community adaptations, such as strategies to suppress tics in public (for example in Tourette's syndrome), or sign language in deaf communities. Assistive technology or interventions are sometimes controversial or rejected, for example in the controversy over cochlear implants for children. A number of symbols are in use to indicate whether certain accessibility adaptations have been made[4].

As the personal computer has become more ubiquitous, various organisations have been founded which develop software and hardware which make a computer more accessible for people with disabilities. Some software and hardware, such as SmartboxAT's The Grid, and Freedom Scientific's JAWS has been specifically designed for people with disabilities; other pieces of software and hardware, such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking, was not developed specifically for people with disabilities, but can be used to increase accessibility.
Further organisations, such as AbilityNet and U Can Do IT, have been established to provide assessment services which determine which assistive technologies would best assist an individual client, and also to train people with disabilities in how to use computer-based assistive technology.

See also

Wednesday, September 19, 2007

A bomb is an explosive device that generates and releases its energy very rapidly. The explosion creates a violent, destructive shock wave. Bombs cause destruction and injury to objects and living things within the blast radius by the crushing action of the shockwave (pressure) and by mechanical impact of fragments, including shards of the bomb casing (often called "shrapnel") or objects from the surrounding area propelled by the blast. Also, bombs have been known to kill by the sound of the blast, by the sound waves causing pressure on the body in such a way that may wound and/or kill a human. Bombs have been used for centuries in both conventional and unconventional warfare. Most bombs do not contain more energy than ordinary fuel, except in the case of a nuclear weapon.
The word comes from the Greek word βόμβος (bombos), an onomatopoetic term with approximately the same meaning as "boom" in English.
Bombs are first and foremost weapons; the term "bomb" is not usually applied to explosive devices used for civilian purposes, such as construction or mining, although the people using the devices may sometimes refer to them as bombs. Many military explosive devices are not called "bombs". The military mostly calls airdropped, unpowered explosive weapons "bombs," and such bombs are normally used by air forces and naval aviation. Other military explosive devices are called grenades, shells, depth charges, warheads when in missiles, or land mines.
Experts commonly distinguish between civilian and military bombs. The latter are almost always mass-produced weapons, developed and constructed to a standard design out of standard components and intended to be deployed in a standard way each time. By contrast, civilian bombs are usually custom-made, developed to any number of designs, use a wide range of explosives of varying levels of power and chemical stability, and are used in many different ways. For this reason, they are generally referred to as improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

Bomb Delivery

Bat bomb
Bomb disposal
Bomb threat
Car bomb
Chlorine bomb
Cluster bomb
Collateral damage
Dirty bomb
Dry Ice Bomb
Earthquake bomb
Electromagnetic bomb
General purpose bomb
Gravity bomb
Hand grenade
Improvised Explosive Device (IED)
Nail bomb
Napalm bomb
Neutron bomb
Nuclear bomb
Pipe bomb
Plastic explosive
Salted bomb
Shaped charge
Strategic Bombing
Suicide bomber
Time bomb

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

Shanghai Cooperation Organization
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is an intergovernmental organisation which was founded on June 14, 2001 by the leaders of the China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Except for Uzbekistan, the other countries had been members of the Shanghai Five; after the inclusion of Uzbekistan in 2001, the members renamed the organisation.

Official names
The Shanghai Five grouping was originally created April 26, 1996 with the signing of the Treaty on Deepening Military Trust in Border Regions in Shanghai by the heads of states of Kazakhstan, the People's Republic of China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. April 24, 1997 the same countries signed the Treaty on Reduction of Military Forces in Border Regions in a meeting in Moscow.
Subsequent annual summits of the Shanghai Five group occurred in Almaty (Kazakhstan) in 1998, in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan) in 1999, and in Dushanbe (Tajikistan) in 2000.
In 2001, the annual summit returned to Shanghai, China. There the five member nations first admitted Uzbekistan in the Shanghai Five mechanism (thus transforming it into the Shanghai Six). Then all six heads of state signed on June 15, 2001, the Declaration of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, praising the role played thus far by the Shanghai Five mechanism and aiming to transform it to a higher level of cooperation. In July 2001, Russia and the PRC, the organisation's two leading nations, signed the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation.
In June 2002, the heads of the SCO member states met in St. Petersburg, Russia. There they signed the SCO Charter which expounded on the organisation's purposes, principles, structures and form of operation, and established it officially from the point of view of international law.


The SCO is primarily centered around its member nations' Central Asian security-related concerns, often describing the main threats it confronts as being terrorism, separatism and extremism.
At the June 16-17 2004 SCO summit, held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, the Regional Antiterrorism Structure (RATS) was established. On 21 April 2006, the SCO announced plans to fight cross-border drug crimes under the counter-terrorism rubric.
The next meeting of Defense Ministers is planned for 2007 in Kyrgyzstan.

Cooperation on security
A Framework Agreement to enhance economic cooperation was signed by the SCO member states on 23 September 2003. At the same meeting the PRC's Premier, Wen Jiabao, proposed a long-term objective to establish a free trade area in the SCO, while other more immediate measures would be taken to improve the flow of goods in the region. A follow up plan with 100 specific actions was signed one year later, on September 23, 2004.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization Economic cooperation
Cultural cooperation also occurs in the SCO framework. Culture ministers of the SCO met for the first time in Beijing on 12 April 2002, signing a joint statement for continued cooperation. The third meeting of the Culture Ministers took place in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, on 27-28 April 2006.

Future membership possibilities
Though the declaration on the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation contained a statement that it "is not an alliance directed against other states and regions and it adheres to the principle of openness", many observers believe that one of the original purposes of the SCO was to serve as a counterbalance to NATO and the United States and in particular to avoid conflicts that would allow the United States to intervene in areas near both Russia and China. Some observers also believe that the organisation was formed as a direct response to the threat of missile defense systems by the United States, after the United States reversed course in its nuclear policy and began promoting National Missile Defense.
The United States has applied for observer status to SCO and was rejected. The Astana summit also saw the induction of India, Pakistan and Iran as observers. However, during the June 2006 SCO summit in Shanghai, the SCO made no comments about U.S. bases.


Military alliance
Sino-Russian relations

Friday, September 14, 2007

Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Muldoon in 1977.
For the fictional character in Jurassic Park, see List of characters in Jurassic Park.
Sir Robert David ("Rob") Muldoon, GCMG, CH (25 September 19215 August 1992) served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1975 to 1984.

Muldoon joined the army during the Second World War and served in the South Pacific and Italy. While in Italy he served in the same battalion as two other National Party colleagues, Duncan MacIntyre and Jack Marshall. He completed his training as an accountant, sitting his final exams to become an accountant whilst in Italy; when he returned to New Zealand after the war, he was the country's first fully qualified cost accountant.
In March 1947 he joined a newly-founded branch of the Junior Nationals, the youth wing of the conservative New Zealand National Party. He quickly became active in the party, making two sacrificial-lamb bids for Parliament against entrenched Labour incumbents in 1954 and 1957 before being elected MP for the suburban Auckland electorate of Tamaki in 1960 general election in the wave that brought Keith Holyoake to power as Prime Minister of the second National government. He would represent this constituency for the next 32 years.

Robert Muldoon Early career
He displayed a flair for debate and a diligence in his backbench work, and in 1963 he was made Under-Secretary to the Minister of Finance, Harry Lake. While holding this office, he was responsible for the successful introduction of decimal currency into New Zealand.

Entry into Cabinet
When Lake died in 1967, Muldoon was the natural (and only obvious) choice to replace him; at 45, he was the youngest Minister of Finance since the 1890s. However, because Holyoake believed Muldoon was too arrogant and ambitious for his own good, thus he was only ranked eighth in Cabinet (Traditionally Ministers of Finance are usually ranked second or third in seniority lists within Westminster Cabinets).
Muldoon believed that both abortion and capital punishment were wrong. He crossed the floor to vote with the Opposition for abolishing the death penalty, in 1961. Later, in 1977, he voted against abortion when the issue came up as a conscience vote.
From his early years as a Member of Parliament, Muldoon became known as Piggy; the epithet that was to remain with him throughout his life even amongst those who were his supporters. Muldoon himself seemed to relish his controversial public profile and later claimed that he thought that satirical critics were not hard enough on him.
Muldoon established a considerable national profile rapidly; many historians credit his image, rather than that of the Prime Minister, Holyoake, or his deputy, Jack Marshall, for the National Party's surprise victory in the 1969 election. He also displayed a flair for the new medium of television lacking in his senior colleagues; he is still considered one of New Zealand's most artful practitioners of media manipulation.

Deputy Prime Minister
Marshall fought the 1972 election on a slogan of "Man For Man, The Strongest Team" — an allusion to Marshall's own low-key style, particularly compared to his deputy. The party was badly defeated, ending 12 years in power. In the aftermath, Marshall resigned, and Muldoon took over, becoming Leader of the Opposition. Many members of the party caucus believed Marshall was not up to the task of taking on the formidable Labour Prime Minister, Norman Kirk.
Muldoon, on the other hand, relished the opportunity — but had it for only a short time, until Kirk's sudden death in August 1974. In the 1975 election, Muldoon overwhelmed Kirk's lacklustre successor, Bill Rowling, reversing the 32–55 Labour majority into a 55–32 National majority. His platform offered "New Zealand - The Way You Want It", promising a generous national superannuation scheme to replace Kirk and Rowling's employer-contribution superannuation scheme, and the promise to fix New Zealand's "shattered economy".

Leader of the Opposition

Main article: Third National Government of New Zealand Prime Minister

Main article: Think Big Think Big

Main article: 1981 Springbok Tour Springbok tour 1981
In 1982, Muldoon's government supported the British in the Falklands War. While New Zealand did not directly participate in the conflict, Muldoon ensured that the frigate HMNZS Canterbury was sent to the Indian Ocean to relieve a Royal Navy frigate, so that it could be deployed in the conflict. New Zealand also broke off its diplomatic relations with Argentina. In defence of his support for the war, Muldoon wrote an article that was published in The Times, entitled Why we Stand by our Mother Country.

Falklands' War
Muldoon initiated a Closer Economic Relations free-trade programme with Australia to liberalise trade, which came into effect from New Year's Day 1982. The aim of total free trade between the two countries was achieved in 1990, five years ahead of schedule.

Closer Economic Relations
Ultimately, the end of Muldoon's government came following a late-night clash with National backbencher Marilyn Waring over highly contentious Opposition-sponsored nuclear-free New Zealand legislation, in which Waring told him she would cross the floor (giving the Opposition a victory). A visibly drunk Muldoon called a snap election for 14 July 1984 (Which most commentators noted was unfortunate, as it is Bastille Day). He was heavily defeated by David Lange's resurgent Labour Party, which won 56 seats to National's 37 with a massive vote division caused by the New Zealand Party in particular.
It has long been a political convention in New Zealand politics that a prime minister does not advise the Governor-General to dissolve Parliament prematurely unless he or she cannot govern, or unless they need to seek the electorate's endorsement on a matter of national importance (as was the case in 1951). Muldoon justified the snap election because he felt Waring's revolt impeded his ability to govern. Indeed, it was obvious that Muldoon was finding it hard to pass financial measures with neo-liberal rebels like Ruth Richardson and Derek Quigley voting against the Government on certain issues; however, some historians have been critical of this excuse, as Waring said that she would not have denied Muldoon confidence or supply, and would not have prevented him from governing, as the government still had the constitutional means to govern.

Nuclear ships policy and snap election

Main article: New Zealand constitutional crisis, 1984 Foreign exchange and constitutional crises
Muldoon was deposed as National Party leader shortly after the election by his deputy leader, Jim McLay. McLay lasted two years, with Muldoon and others actively undermining his leadership. In 1986, he was ousted in turn by his own deputy (and Muldoon's preferred candidate), Jim Bolger, who had served as Minister of Labour for the latter half of Muldoon's term as Prime Minister.
Muldoon remained in Parliament as the MP for Tamaki until shortly before his death. He lived through the Fourth Labour Government's neo-liberal reforms, known as Rogernomics, and to his horror — to see a National government led by his own man, Bolger, after being elected in the landslide of 1990, take up the baton with Ruthanasia, named after Finance Minister Ruth Richardson. Muldoon's conscience tormented him; he could not bring himself to vote with the Labour Party against the Bolger government's benefit cuts, and, looking miserable, abstained.
Muldoon also opposed the legalisation of homosexual behavior when Labour MP Fran Wilde introduced the Homosexual Law Reform Bill in 1985, which was passed.
Although he remained iconic to particular segments of society, particularly the elderly, Muldoon faded quickly as a force on the political scene. His biographer, Barry Gustafson — who noted that he was not a Muldoon supporter — wrote that he still served as an active MP for his Tamaki electorate, dealing immediately with matters from all walks of life. He continued to write in international economic journals, arguing that the unemployment that had arisen as a result of the free-market reforms was worse than the gains that were made, a view that came to be popular by the time of the Fifth Labour Government in 1999.
He had a short stage career in a New Zealand production of The Rocky Horror Show, starring as the narrator, had minor television appearances on commercials for Panasonic (when it changed its name in New Zealand from National) and the TV series Terry and the Gunrunners (as Arnos Grove) and The Friday Frights (as the host), and hosted a talkback radio show entitled Lilies and Other Things, after his favourite flower.
It was on this show, on 17 November 1991, that he announced he would stand down from Parliament; he formally retired one month later, on 17 December. His retirement party featured taped speeches from Ronald Reagan (commenting that at Muldoon's age, he was only getting started) and Margaret Thatcher. He fell seriously ill almost immediately, and died in hospital on 5 August 1992, aged 70.

Later life
Muldoon remains one of the most complex, fascinating, and polarising figures in New Zealand history. He divided people into camps of those who loved him and those who hated him; very few people, except those born after his fall, were neutral. To his enemies, "Piggy" Muldoon was a dictatorial Prime Minister who nearly destroyed both New Zealand's economy and New Zealand society through his arrogance.
To those, known as "Rob's Mob", who revered him, he was an icon of the New Zealand national character, a supporter of the "ordinary bloke" (his own description of himself) and an international statesman. Curiously, he was also patron of the Mongrel Mob gang Some argue that he was responsible for much of the pain caused by the free-market reforms of 1984 – 1993, because by holding on for as long as he did he forced the inevitable reforms to be implemented with unusual speed and severity. However, this view is not universal, and many also argue that the free market reformers of the 1980s and 1990s used Muldoon as an excuse to embark on radical ideological programs.
Muldoon famously declared upon becoming Prime Minister that he hoped to leave New Zealand "no worse off than I found it". He dominated New Zealand politics for over a decade, and still influences the conduct of government today. Gustafson gives him the following epitaph: "By 1992 New Zealand had not become what Muldoon or many other New Zealanders wanted it to be but he was not prepared to take the blame for that. Muldoon died unrepentant and still convinced that his way, even if never perfect, had been a better way."

In 1951 Muldoon married Thea Flyger, by whom he would have three children, and who survives him. She was named Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1993, and QSO.